Advertisement

A methodology for the seismic multilevel assessment of unreinforced masonry church inventories in the Groningen area

  • Matteo Moratti
  • Federica Gaia
  • Sara Martini
  • Chrysanthi Tsioli
  • Giulia Grecchi
  • Chiara Casotto
  • Gian Michele Calvi
  • Dick Den Hertog
  • Paolo Martino Calvi
  • Giorgio Talotti ProestosEmail author
S.I. : Induced Seismicity and Its Effects on Built Environment
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

As a result of changes in seismicity in the Groningen area, a need has arisen to be able to rapidly assess and prioritize entire inventories of unreinforced masonry churches. As a part of being able to provide resource optimization to determine which structures are in most need of intervention, a multilevel methodology to assess seismic performance is presented. The process involves both data collection and vulnerability assessments. This multilevel approach involves progressive refinements to the data collected and to the complexity of the analyses conducted. Five data collection phases are used in conjunction with three progressively more complex methods for the seismic assessment. The first level of assessment uses only statistical information of the structures with information that can be obtained through desktop reviews. The second level of analysis uses key characteristics of wall thickness and height to develop simple models for each wall in each church. This level of analysis requires at least a preliminary site visit. In the third level of analysis, a more refined model of the church is developed from detailed site surveys of the structure where each wall is modelled and assessed. The process involves the assessment of the in-plane behaviour of either whole churches or single walls (global response) and the out-of-plane behaviour of single elements (local response). The study applies the approaches outlined in the NEN NPR9998 2017 combined with the Italian Standards for the cultural heritage. This paper outlines this Seismic Multilevel Assessment of Churches methodology and how it applies to an inventory of 52 unreinforced masonry churches in the Groningen area, The Netherlands.

Keywords

Church Inventory prioritization Masonry Multilevel methodology Seismic assessment WebGIS In-plane Out-of-plane 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by NAM and was largely carried out by Studio Calvi S.r.l. The authors would also like to thank Dr. David Ruggiero for the development of the RIT tool, Hilde Millekamp (Arup) and Libau for their contributions during the first set of inspections in 2016, BORG and Dijkoraad for their collaboration on inspections and evaluation of results in 2017–2018. Finally, the authors would like to thank 3Muri and TreMuri as well as their technical assistance departments and development teams.

References

  1. Basisregistraties Adressen en Gebouwen (BAG), kadaster. https://bagviewer.kadaster.nl/lvbag/bag-viewer/index.html#?geometry.x=160000&geometry.y=455000&zoomlevel=0. Last Accessed Dec 2017
  2. Borri A, Corradi M, Castori G, De Maria A (2015) A method for the analysis and classification of historic masonry. Bull Earthq Eng 13(9):2647–2665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calderini C, Cattari S, Degli Abbati S, Lagomarsino S, Ottonelli D, Rossi M (2012) Modelling strategies for seismic global response and local mechanisms, PERPETUATE (EU-FP7 Research Project), Deliverable D26Google Scholar
  4. Cifani G, Lemme A, Podestà S (2005) Beni monumentali e terremoto. Dall’emergenza alla ricostruzione, DEI- Tipographia del Genio Civile—Rome, SISMA MOLISE—Region of Molise, and National Research Council -, D.A.S.T.—U.O.I.G.—L’AquilaGoogle Scholar
  5. Commentary CM 2/02/2009 to the Italian Code (2009). Istruzioni per l’applicazione delle “Norme tecniche per le costruzioni” di cui al D.M., 14 January 2008, Italy
Google Scholar
  6. Fajfar Peter (2000) A nonlinear analysis method for performance based seismic design. Earthq Spectr 16(3):573–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Italian Code DM 14/01/2008: NTC08 (2008) Norme tecniche per le costruzioni. Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti, Decreto Ministeriale, 14 January 2008, Supplemento ordinario alla G.U., n. 29, 4 February 2008, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  8. Lagomarsino S, Modaressi H, Pitilakis K, Bosiljkov V, Calderini C, D’ayala D, Benouar D, Cattari S (2010) PERPETUATE Project: the proposal of a performance-based approach to earthquake protection of cultural heritage. Adv Mater Res 133–134:1119–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lagomarsino S, Penna A, Galasco A, Cattari S (2013) TREMURI program: an equivalent frame model for the nonlinear seismic analysis of masonry buildings. Eng Struct 56:1787–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leite J, Ingham JM, Lourenco P (2014) Damage inspection in churches—the Canterbury earthquake (New Zealand) experience. In: Arêde A, Paupério E, Romão X (eds) Proceedings of the cultural heritage and loss prevention (HELP) 2014. Porto, Portugal, pp 261–273Google Scholar
  11. Marotta A, Goded T, Giovinazzi S, Lagomarsino S, Liberatore D, Sorrentino L, Ingham J (2015) An inventory of unreinforced masonry churches in New Zealand. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 48:170–189Google Scholar
  12. Milano L, Mannella A, Morisi C, Martinelli A (2009) Schede illustrative dei principali meccanismi di collasso locali negli edifici esistenti in muratura e dei relativi modelli cinematici di analisi. Allegato alle Linee Guida per la Riparazione e il Rafforzamento di elementi strutturali, Tamponature e Partizioni, Reluis, Protezione Civile Nationale, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  13. Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (KNMI) Ardbevingscatalogus dataset. http://www.knmi.nl. Last Accessed May 2018
  14. Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti (2010). Italian Guidelines for the evaluation of risk in the historical heritage: Linee guida per la valutazione e la riduzione del rischio sismico del patrimonio culturale con riferimento alle Norme tecniche per le costruzioni di cui al decreto del Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti del 14 gennaio 2008. n. 26, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  15. Moratti M, Gaia F, Martini S, Tsioli C, Grecchi G, Calvi GM, Den Hertog D, Calvi PM, Proestos GT The seismic assessment of unreinforced masonry church inventories in the groningen area. In: 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece, 18–21 June 2018Google Scholar
  16. NEN (NEderlandse Norm) (2015) Assessment of buildings in case of erection, 
reconstruction and disapproval—basic rules for seismic actions: induced earthquakes, NPR 9998: 2015 nlGoogle Scholar
  17. NEN (NEderlandse Norm) (2017) Assessment of structural safety of buildings in case of erection, reconstruction and disapproval—basic rules for seismic actions: induced earthquakes, NPR 9998: 2017 nlGoogle Scholar
  18. NEN (NEderlandse Norm) Webtool NPR 9998. http://seismischekrachten.nen.nl/webtool.php. Last Accessed May 2018
  19. Penna A, Lagomarsino S, Galasco A (2014) A nonlinear macro-element model for the seismic analysis of masonry buildings. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 43(2):159–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Penna A, Senaldi IE, Galasco A, Magenes G (2016) Numerical simulation of shaking table tests on full-scale stone masonry buildings. Int J Archit Heritage 10(2–3):146–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peters CH (1973) “Oud Groningen—stad en lande. Groninger Boekverkopers, College Groningen, pp 386Google Scholar
  22. Rijks Monumenten (2018) Rijks Monumenten kaart (beta), Monument Map. http://rijksmonumenten.info/kaart/. Last Accessed May 2018Google Scholar
  23. Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (2018) Monumenten Register. https://monumentenregister.cultureelerfgoed.nl. Accessed May 2018Google Scholar
  24. Stichting Oude Groninger Kerken (SOGK). Groninger Kerken Digitaal. https://www.groningerkerken.nl/index.php. Last Accessed May 2018
  25. Vinci M (2012) Metodi di calcolo e tecniche di consolidamento per edifici in muratura—analisi esempi di calcolo—particolari costruttivi, 1st edn. Dario Flaccovio Editore, PalermoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matteo Moratti
    • 1
  • Federica Gaia
    • 1
  • Sara Martini
    • 1
  • Chrysanthi Tsioli
    • 1
  • Giulia Grecchi
    • 1
  • Chiara Casotto
    • 1
  • Gian Michele Calvi
    • 1
  • Dick Den Hertog
    • 2
  • Paolo Martino Calvi
    • 3
  • Giorgio Talotti Proestos
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.STUDIO CALVI S.r.lPaviaItaly
  2. 2.Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.VAssenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations