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Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 1285–1330 | Cite as

Empirical drift-fragility functions and loss estimation for infills in reinforced concrete frames under seismic loading

  • Carlo Del Gaudio
  • Maria Teresa De RisiEmail author
  • Paolo Ricci
  • Gerardo Mario Verderame
Original Research
  • 91 Downloads

Abstract

Earthquakes that have occurred in the last twenty years in the Mediterranean area have had significant economic and social impacts. Most of the economic losses of reinforced concrete (RC) frames was due to nonstructural component damage, particularly masonry infills and partitions. Therefore, the seismic behaviour of masonry infills should be reliably characterized. The main goals of this study for a more reliable loss estimation for infilled RC frames are: (i) the analysis of the inter-story drift ratio (IDR) capacity at given damage states (DSs) with the aim to define drift-based fragility functions and (ii) analyse direct losses due to infill damage following seismic events. First, a database of experimental tests performed on 1-bay, 1-story scaled RC frames infilled with clay bricks or concrete blocks is collected. Drift-based fragility curves are obtained, which depend on the infill brick materials and properties. Then, the drift capacity threshold at each DS is correlated to the in-plane response of the infill panel to directly quantify the relationship that exists among them. The influence of openings on drift capacities is also evaluated. Then, seismic losses related to infills are computed, providing expected monetary losses depending on the infill typology. The required reparation activities and their costs are also listed. The bearing of each activity and cost at each DS is explicitly evaluated. Additionally, loss functions that directly depend on IDR demand are provided, thus fusing together the damage analysis and loss analysis. Finally, a simplified formulation for loss functions is proposed for a simple, practice-oriented loss calculation.

Keywords

RC buildings Masonry infills Brick typology Experimental data Damage states Fragility curves Loss functions 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was developed under the support of ReLUIS-DPC 2014-2018 “PR2. Strutture in cemento armato-WP6. Capacità sismica di tamponature ed interventi di rafforzamento”, funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), and AXA Research Fund Post-Doctoral Grant “Advanced nonlinear modelling and performance assessment of masonry infills in RC buildings under seismic loads: the way forward to design or retrofitting strategies and reduction of losses”. These financial supports are gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture (DIST)University of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

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