Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 957–983 | Cite as

Influence of shear studs distribution on the mechanical behaviour of dissipative hybrid steel frames with r.c. infill walls

  • Francesco MorelliEmail author
  • Nicola Mussini
  • Walter Salvatore
Original Research


This paper studies the influence of the shear studs distribution, in terms of local and global effects, on the behavior of dissipative hybrid Steel frames with Reinforced Concrete infill Walls (SRCWs). Dissipative SRCWs have been recently proposed as seismic resistant systems, capable of coupling the high stiffness of reinforced concrete walls with the advantages of dissipative systems, in which the energy dissipation takes place in localized and replaceable elements. However, experimental tests showed that the global behavior and the failure mechanism of such systems are strongly influenced by the shear studs distribution along the steel frame—reinforce concrete wall interface. In this paper, this issue is studied through suitable numerical models, calibrated on the base of the available experimental results. Several modeling options and strategies are considered and their influence on the final results has been assessed. The resulting numerical model is used to analyze the mechanical behavior of such system and to perform parametric analyses varying the shear studs distribution. The results obtained help the understanding of the mechanical behavior and of the resisting mechanisms activated on the studied system, supplying relevant information for the development of more accurate design rules.


Hybrid system Steel frame Infill wall Shear studs Ductile behavior 



Support for this research from the European Commission, Research Fund for Coal and Steel, Steel Technical Group TGS 8 (RFSR-CT-2010-00025) and from the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the Italian Research Project RELUIS-DPC 2014-2018, is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Ayoub A, Filippou FC (2000) Mixed formulation of nonlinear steel-concrete composite beam element. J Struct Eng 126:371–381. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Braconi A, Caprili S, Degee H et al (2015) Efficiency of eurocode 8 design rules for steel and steel-concrete composite structures. J Constr Steel Res 112:108–129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Čas B, Saje M, Planinc I (2004) Non-linear finite element analysis of composite planar frames with an interlayer slip. Comput Struct 82:1901–1912. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dall’Asta A, Zona A (2002) Non-linear analysis of composite beams by a displacement approach. Comput Struct 80:2217–2228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dall’Asta A, Leoni G, Zona A et al (2015) Innovative hybrid and composite steel-concrete structural solutions for building in seismic area, Final Report, EUR 26932 EN. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  6. Dall’Asta A, Leoni G, Morelli F et al (2017) An innovative seismic-resistant steel frame with reinforced concrete infill walls. Eng Struct 141:144–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hajjar JF (2002) Composite steel and concrete structural systems for seismic engineering. J Constr Steel Res 58:703–723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hibbitt Karlson and Sorensen (2012) ABAQUS Theory Manual, version 6.12Google Scholar
  9. Jankowiak T, Lodygowski T (2005) Identification of parameters of concrete damage plasticity constitutive model. Found Civ Environ Eng 6:53–69. Google Scholar
  10. Liauw TC (1979) Tests on multistory infilled frames subject to dynamic lateral loading. ACI J 76:551–564Google Scholar
  11. Liauw T-C, Kwan K-H (1985) Static and cyclic behavior of multistory infilled frames with different interface conditions. J Sound Vib 99:275–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liauw TC, Lee SW (1977) On the behaviour of multi-storey infilled frames subject to lateral loading. Proc Inst Civ Eng 63:641–656. Google Scholar
  13. Mallick DV, Severn RT (1968) Dynamic characteristics of infilled frames. Proc Inst Civ Eng 39:261–287. Google Scholar
  14. Malm R, Gerard J, Håkan S (2006) Monitoring and evaluation of shear crack initiation and propagation in webs of concrete box-girder sections. In: International conference on bridge engineering-challenges in the 21st century. The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  15. Morelli F, Manfredi M, Salvatore W (2016) An enhanced component based model for steel connection in a hybrid coupled shear wall structure: development, calibration and experimental validation. Comput Struct 176:50–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morelli F, Amico C, Salvatore W et al (2017) Influence of tension stiffening on the flexural stiffness of reinforced concrete circular sections. Materials (Basel). Google Scholar
  17. Morino S (1998) Recent developments in hybrid structures in Japan–research, design and construction. Eng Struct 20:336–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. NTC (2008) Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni, D.Min. Inf. 14 gennaio 2008, Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 29 of February 4th 2008 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 30. (in Italian)Google Scholar
  19. Popovic S (1973) A numerical approach to the complete stress-strain curves for concrete. Cem Concr Res 3:583–599. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Queiroz FD, Vellasco PCGS, Nethercot DA (2007) Finite element modelling of composite beams with full and partial shear connection. J Constr Steel Res 63:505–521. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ranzi G, Zona A (2007) A steel-concrete composite beam model with partial interaction including the shear deformability of the steel component. Eng Struct 29:3026–3041. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sousa JBM, da Silva AR (2007) Nonlinear analysis of partially connected composite beams using interface elements. Finite Elem Anal Des 43:954–964. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tahmasebinia F, Ranzi G, Zona A (2012a) A probabilistic three-dimensional finite element study on simply-supported composite floor beams. Aust J Struct Eng 12:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tahmasebinia F, Ranzi G, Zona A (2012b) Beam tests of composite steel-concrete members: a three-dimensional finite element model. Int J Steel Struct 12:37–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tahmasebinia F, Ranzi G, Zona A (2013) Probabilistic three-dimensional finite element study on composite beams with steel trapezoidal decking. J Constr Steel Res 80:394–411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Te-Chang L, Kwok-Hung K (1984) Nonlinear behaviour of non-integral infilled frames. Comput Struct 18:551–560. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tong X, Hajjar JF, Schultz AE, Shield CK (2005) Cyclic behavior of steel frame structures with composite reinforced concrete infill walls and partially-restrained connections. J Constr Steel Res 61:531–552. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Valente M, Castiglioni CA, Kanyilmaz A (2017a) Welded fuses for dissipative beam-to-column connections of composite steel frames: numerical analyses. J Constr Steel Res 128:498–511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Valente M, Castiglioni CA, Kanyilmaz A (2017b) Numerical investigations of repairable dissipative bolted fuses for earthquake resistant composite steel frames. Eng Struct 131:275–292. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wilhelm Ernst and Sohn B (ed) (2013) CEB-FIP Model Code 2010Google Scholar
  31. Zona A, Ranzi G (2011) Finite element models for nonlinear analysis of steelconcrete composite beams with partial interaction in combined bending and shear. Finite Elem Anal Des 47:98–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zona A, Ranzi G (2014) Shear connection slip demand in composite steel-concrete beams with solid slabs. J Constr Steel Res 102:266–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zona A, Degée H, Leoni G, Dall’Asta A (2016) Ductile design of innovative steel and concrete hybrid coupled walls. J Constr Steel Res 117:204–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations