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Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 497–518 | Cite as

Push-over analysis of a rubble full-scale masonry wall reinforced with stainless steel ribbons

  • Nino Spinella
Original Research
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

Many strengthening techniques for masonry structures were thoroughly investigated in several researches. The in plane shear behaviour of an ancient full-scale masonry wall, characterized by an opening that is strengthened by the lintel in the arch form, retrofitted with an innovative system constituted by three-dimensional pre-tensioned stainless steel ribbons, was previously tested. In this paper the double flat-jack test results were analyzed and design of the retrofitting system was detailed. The collapse mechanisms in terms of flexural bending and shear, both sliding and diagonal tension, as function of the compression stress level were taken into account. The arrangement of the ribbons was established on the base of an equivalent frame model of the masonry wall, investigating the flexural and shear strength of each element (piers and spandrel). Moreover, the numerical results of the response behaviour modelling of the unreinforced and reinforced masonry wall were presented. The analytical modelling of the wall was accomplished suitably applying the methods of the disturbed stress field model, successfully used for reinforced concrete elements. The numerical results provided a good prediction of the response behaviour of the wall, both in terms of load–displacement curve and crack pattern at failure.

Keywords

Masonry wall Stainless steel Ribbons Shear Numerical analysis 

List of symbols

As

Total area of ribbons

B, H

Base and height of cross-section

C, T

Compression and tension forces

Em, Es

Initial modulus of elasticity of masonry and stainless steel

b

Slenderness factor

d

Effective depth of the cross-section

Em1, Em2

Secant modules of masonry along the principal directions

Em, Es

Elastic modulus of masonry and stainless steel

L

Length of pier or spandrel

fmm, ftm

Compressive and tensile strength of masonry

fmx fmy τmxy

Masonry stresses

fm1, fm2

Stresses of masonry along the principal directions

fsx fsy

Reinforcement stresses

fsz

Out-of-plane reinforcement stress

fv, fv0

Shear stress and shear stress strength

fys, fts

Stainless steel yield and failure strength

Ka, Km

Corrective factors between pressure in the flat-jack and the masonry stress

M, N, V

Bending moment, axial and shear force

P, Pm,

Load, maximum and failure load

PE

Equivalent static load

p

Pressure applied by the flat-jack

pf

Ribbons spacing

q

Vertical distribuited load

t

Thickness of wall

x

Depth of compression zone

z

Lever arm

α

Reinforcement orientation

δ, δm

Displacement, maximum and failure displacement

εm0

Strain at the peak of compressed stress of masonry

εmz, fmz

Out-of-plane masonry strain and stress

εs, εts

Strain and failure strain of stainless steel ribbon

εx εy εxy

Total strains

εv

Vertical average strain of masonry

η, λ

Stress-block factors

μ, ν

Non-dimensionless bending moment and axial force

ωs

Mechanical percentage of reinforcement

ρs

Geometrical percentage of reinforcement

σ0

Average compression stress evaluated on the total cross-section

\(\sigma_{n} ,\sigma_{n}^{*}\)

Average compression stress evaluated on the effective depth and the compressed cross-section

σp

Tension increase due to pre-strain

σs

Stainless steel stress

σx σy σxy

Uniform stresses

σv

Vertical average stress of masonry

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was carried out within the financial support from the Sicilian Government within the research project PO. FESR 2007–2013 – Sicilia – Linea di Intervento 4.1.1.2, involving ABI S.r.l. (Italy), Chimetec S.a.s. (Italy) and Università di Messina (Italy), and the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (PRIN Grant 2015HZ24KH). The related financial support was greatly appreciated. The Author wishes to express his personal gratitude to these research funds and also to the PRIN Grant 2015HZ24KH, through which a research fellow scholarship was awarded.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversità di MESSINAVill. Sant’AgataItaly

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