Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 439–471 | Cite as

Numerical simulation of potential seismic pounding among adjacent buildings in series

  • Shehata E. Abdel RaheemEmail author
  • Mohammed Y. M. Fooly
  • Aly G. A. Abdel Shafy
  • Ahmed M. Taha
  • Yousef A. Abbas
  • Mohamed M. S. Abdel Latif
Original Research
  • 143 Downloads

Abstract

Numerous urban seismic vulnerability studies have recognized pounding between adjacent structures as one of the main risks for neighbouring buildings due to the restricted separation distance. The seismic pounding could produce damages that range from slight non-structural to serious structural damage that could even head to a total collapse of buildings. Therefore, an assessment of the seismic pounding risk of buildings is indispensable in future calibration of seismic design code provisions. Thus, this study targets to draw useful recommendations for seismic design through the evaluation of the pounding effects on adjacent buildings. A numerical simulation is formulated to estimate the pounding effects on the seismic response demands of three adjacent buildings in series with different alignment configurations. Three adjacent buildings of 3-storey, 6-storey and 12-storey MRF buildings are combined together to produce three different alignment configurations; these configurations of adjacent buildings are subjected to nine ground motions that are absolutely compatible with the design spectrum. The nonlinear time-history is performed for the evaluation of the response demands of different alignment configurations of the adjacent buildings using structural analysis software ETABS. Various response parameters are investigated such as displacement, acceleration, storey shear force mean and maximum responses, impact force and hysteretic behaviour. Based on the obtained results, it has been concluded that the severity of the seismic pounding effects depends on the vibration characteristic of the adjacent buildings, the input excitation characteristic and whether the building has interior or exterior alignment position, thus either exposed to one or two-sided impacts. Seismic pounding among adjacent buildings induces greater shear force and acceleration response demands at different story levels for the high rise building, while the response could be reduced in the short buildings compared to that of no-pounding case. The effect of poundings of adjacent buildings seems to be critical for most of the cases and, therefore, the structural pounding phenomenon is rather detrimental than beneficial.

Keywords

Adjacent buildings in series Seismic pounding Time history analysis Separation gap Response demands Earthquake characteristics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would also like to record their indebtedness and thankfulness to the reviewers for their valuable and fruitful comments as well as for their powerful reading and suggestions. The financial support by Scientific Research Deanship, Taibah University Grant No. 7128/436 is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Abdel Raheem SE (2006) Seismic pounding between adjacent building structures. Electron J Struct Eng 6:66–74Google Scholar
  2. Abdel Raheem SE (2009) Pounding mitigation and unseating prevention at expansion joint of isolated multi-span bridges. Eng Struct 31(10):2345–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdel Raheem SE (2013a) Evaluation and mitigation of earthquake induced pounding effects on adjacent buildings performance. In: 2013 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics—ASEM13 Congress, Jeju, Korea, Paper ID. MS509_201, 8–12 SeptGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdel Raheem SE (2013b) Mitigation measures for seismic pounding effects on adjacent buildings responses. In: 4th conference of computational mechanics, structural dynamics and earthquake engineering—COMPDYN 2013, Kos Island, Greece, Paper ID. 1699, 12–14 JuneGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdel Raheem SE (2014) Mitigation measures for earthquake induced pounding effects on seismic performance of adjacent buildings. Bull Earthq Eng 12:1705–1724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Abdel Raheem SE, Hayashikawa T (2013) Mitigation measures for expansion joint effects on seismic performance of bridge structures. In: The 13th East Asia-Pacific conference on structural engineering and construction (EASEC-13), Sapporo, Japan, Paper no. 286, 11–13 SeptGoogle Scholar
  7. Abdel Raheem SE, Ahmed MMM, Ahmed MM, Abdel-shafy AGA (2018a) Evaluation of plan configuration irregularity effects on seismic response demands of L-shaped MRF buildings. Bull Earthq Eng 16(9):3845–3869.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-018-0319-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Abdel Raheem SE, Fooly MYM, Abdel Shafy AGA, Abbas YA, Omar M, Abdel Latif MMS, Mahmoud S (2018b) Seismic pounding effects on adjacent buildings in series with different alignment configurations. Steel Compos Struct 28(3):289–308.  https://doi.org/10.12989/scs.2018.28.3.289 Google Scholar
  9. Abrahamson N (2006) Program SeismoMatch v2–software capable of adjusting earthquake accelerograms to match a specific design response spectrum, using the wavelets algorithm proposedGoogle Scholar
  10. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (2010) Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. In: ASCE/SEI standard 7-10. American Society of Civil Engineers, RestonGoogle Scholar
  11. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (2013) Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings—ASCE/SEI 41-13. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), RestonGoogle Scholar
  12. Anagnostopoulos SA (1988) Pounding of buildings in series during earthquakes. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 16:443–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Anagnostopoulos SA, Karamaneas CE (2008) Use of collision shear walls to minimize seismic separation and to protect adjacent buildings from collapse due to earthquake-induced pounding. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37(12):1371–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anagnostopoulos SA, Spiliopoulos KV (1992) An investigation of earthquake induced pounding between adjacent buildings. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 21:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Athanassiadou CJ, Penelis G, Kappos AJ (1994) Seismic response of adjacent buildings with similar or different dynamic characteristics. Earthq Spectra 10:293–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bertero VV (1987) Observations on structural pounding. In: Cassaro MA, Martinez Romero E (eds) The Mexico earthquakes-1985: factors involved and lessons learned. ASCE, New York, pp 264–278Google Scholar
  17. Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) (2009) NEHRP recommended provisions for the development of seismic regulations for new buildings and other structures—FEMA P-750. Federal Emergency Management Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Bull D, Dhakal R, Cole G, Carr A (2010) Building pounding state of the art: Identifying structures vulnerable to pounding damage. New Zealand society for earthquake engineering annual conference, paperP11Google Scholar
  19. Bureau of Indian Standards (IS) (2002) Indian standard criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures, part 1—general provisions and buildings, IS 1893, 5th edn. BIS, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  20. Cole G, Bull D, Dhakal R, Carr A (2010) Interbuilding pounding damage observed in the 2010 Darfield earthquake. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 43(4):382–386Google Scholar
  21. Cole G, Dhakal R, Carr A, Bull D (2011) Case studies of observed pounding damage during the 2010 Darfield earthquake. In: 9th Pacific conference on earthquake engineering building an earthquake-resilient society, Auckland, New Zealand, pp 14–16Google Scholar
  22. Cole GL, Dhakal RP, Turner FM (2012) Building pounding damage observed in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 41(5):893–913.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.1164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Computers and Structures Inc. (CSI) (2013) CSI analysis reference manual for SAP2000, ETABS, and SAFE. Computers and Structures Inc., Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  24. Computers and Structures Inc. (CSI) (2016) ETABS2016 v16.0.0: extended three dimensional analysis of building systems. Computers and Structures Inc., BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis R (1992) Pounding of buildings modelled by an impact oscillator. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 21:253–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DesRoches R, Muthukumar S (2002) Effect of pounding and restrainers on seismic response of multiple-frame bridges. J Struct Eng 128:860–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Efraimiadou S, Hatzigeorgiou GD, Beskos DE (2013) Structural pounding between adjacent buildings subjected to strong ground motions. Part I: the effect of different structures arrangement. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 42(10):1509–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elwardany H, Seleemah A, Jankowski R (2017) Seismic pounding behavior of multi-story buildings in series considering the effect of infill panels. Eng Struct 144(1):139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. European committee for Standardization (ECS) (2004) EC8: design of structures for earthquake resistance: general rules seismic actions and rules for buildings (EN 1998-1). ECS, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  30. Favvata MJ (2017) Minimum required separation gap for adjacent RC frames with potential inter-story seismic pounding. Eng Struct 152:643–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2000) Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings—FEMA 356. SAC Joint Venture, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Garcia DL (2004) Separation between adjacent nonlinear structures for prevention of seismic pounding. In: 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, CA, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  33. Guo A, Li Z, Li H, Ou J (2009) Experimental and analytical study on pounding reduction of base-isolation highway bridges using MR dampers. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 38(11):1307–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Guo A, Cui T, Li H (2012) Impact stiffness of the contact-element models for the pounding analysis of highway bridges: experimental evaluation. J Earthq Eng 16(8):1132–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Housing and Building National Research Center (ECP) (1993) ECP-201: Egyptian code for calculating loads and forces in structural work and masonry. Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Planning, CairoGoogle Scholar
  36. Housing and Building National Research Center (ECP) (2007) ECP-203: Egyptian code for design and construction of reinforced concrete structures. Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Planning, CairoGoogle Scholar
  37. Housing and Building National Research Center (ECP) (2008) ECP-201: Egyptian code for calculating loads and forces in structural work and masonry. Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Planning, CairoGoogle Scholar
  38. Inel M, Ozmen H, Akyol E (2013) Observations on the building damages after 19 May 2011 Simav (Turkey) earthquake. Bull Earthq Eng 11:255–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. International Code Council (ICC) (2009) IBC: international building code. International Code Council (ICC), BirminghamGoogle Scholar
  40. International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) (1997) UBC97: uniform building code. In: Structural engineering design provisions, vol 2. Whittier, CAGoogle Scholar
  41. Jankowski R (2006) Pounding force response spectrum under earthquake excitation. Eng Struct 28:1149–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jankowski R (2009) Non-linear FEM analysis of earthquake-induced pounding between the main building and the stairway tower of the Olive View Hospital. Eng Struct 31(8):1851–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jankowski R (2010) Experimental study on earthquake-induced pounding between structural elements made of different building materials. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 39:343–354Google Scholar
  44. Jeng V, Tzeng WL (2000) Assessment of seismic pounding hazard for Taipei City. Eng Struct 22(5):459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jeng V, Kasai K, Maison BF (1992) A spectral difference method to estimate building separations to avoid pounding. Earthq Spectra 8:201–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. John A. Martin & Associates, Inc. (Johnmartin) (2018) Earthquake damage, Mexico City, September 19, 1985. http://www.johnmartin.com/earthquakes/eqshow/647003_08.htm. Accessed May 2018
  47. Karayannis CG, Favvata MJ (2005) Earthquake-induced interaction between adjacent reinforced concrete structures with non-equal heights. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 34(1):1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.398 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kasai K, Maison BF (1991) Observation of structural pounding damage from 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. In: 6th Canadian conference of earthquake engineering, pp 735–742Google Scholar
  49. Kasai K, Maison BF (1997) Building pounding damage during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Eng Struct 19:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kawashima K, Shoji G (2000) Effect of restrainers to mitigate pounding between adjacent decks subjected to a strong ground motion. In: 12th world conference on earthquake engineering, New Zealand, Auckland, Paper no. 1435Google Scholar
  51. Kawashima K, Unjoh S, Hoshikuma JI, Kosa K (2011) Damage of bridges due to the 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake. J Earthq Eng 15:1036–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Khatiwada S, Chouw N (2013) A shake table investigation on interaction between buildings in a row. Coupled Syst Mech 2(2):175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Komodromos P, Polycarpou P, Papaloizou L, Phocas MC (2007) Response of Seismically Isolated Buildings Considering Poundings. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 36(12):1605–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kwon OS, Kim ES (2010) Evaluation of building period formulas for seismic design. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 39(14):1569–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mahmoud S, Jankowski R (2011) Linear viscoelastic modelling of damage-involved structural pounding during earthquakes. Key Eng Mater 452:357–360Google Scholar
  56. Maison BF, Kasai K (1992) Dynamics of pounding when two buildings collide. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 21:771–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mander JB, Priestley MJN, Park R (1988) Theoretical stress–strain model for confined concrete. J Struct Eng 114(8):1804–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Naserkhaki S, Ghorbania SD, Tolloeib DT (2013) Heavier adjacent building pounding due to earthquake excitation. Asian J Civ Eng (BHRC) 14(2):349–367Google Scholar
  59. National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) (2018) ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazards/cdroms/geohazards_v2/images/647003/jpg/64700308.jpg. Accessed May 2018Google Scholar
  60. National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) (2005) NBCC: national building code of Canada, 12th edn. Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes, National Research Council of Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  61. Openquake (2018) GEM—global earthquake model building taxonomy. https://taxonomy.openquake.org/terms/pounding-potential-pop. Accessed May 2018
  62. Ozmen HB, Inel M, Cayci BT (2013) Engineering implications of the RC building damages after 2011 Van earthquakes. Earthq Struct 5(3):297–319.  https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2013.5.3.297.297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shome N, Cornell CA, Bazzurro P, Carballo JE (1998) Earthquakes, records and nonlinear responses. Earthq Spectra 14(3):469–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) (2013). PEER NGA-West2 database. PEER report 2013/03, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  65. Papadrakakis M, Mouzakis H (1995) Earthquake simulator testing of pounding between adjacent buildings. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 24:811–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Polycarpou P, Komodromos P (2010) Earthquake-induced poundings of a seismically isolated building with adjacent structures. Eng Struct, Special Issue: Learning from structural failures 32(7):1937–1951Google Scholar
  67. Rosenblueth E (1986) The 1985 earthquake: causes and effects in Mexico City. Concrete J 8:23–24Google Scholar
  68. Shakya K, Wijeywickrema AC, Ohmachi T (2008) Mid-column seismic pounding of reinforced concrete buildings in a row considering effects of soil. In: 14th WCEE, Beijing, Paper ID 05-01-0056Google Scholar
  69. Somerville PG (1998) Emerging art: earthquake ground motion. Geotech Earthq Eng Soil Dyn III ASCE Geotech Spec Publ 75(1):1–38Google Scholar
  70. Watanabe G, Kawashima K (2004) Numerical simulation of pounding of bridge decks. In: The 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shehata E. Abdel Raheem
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author return OK on get
  • Mohammed Y. M. Fooly
    • 2
  • Aly G. A. Abdel Shafy
    • 2
  • Ahmed M. Taha
    • 1
  • Yousef A. Abbas
    • 2
  • Mohamed M. S. Abdel Latif
    • 2
  1. 1.Civil Engineering Department, Engineering CollegeTaibah UniversityMadinahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt

Personalised recommendations