Advertisement

Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 2603–2625 | Cite as

Effect of torsional ground motion on the seismic response of highway bridges

  • Ecem ÖzşahinEmail author
  • Gökhan Pekcan
Original Research
  • 273 Downloads

Abstract

Seismological aspects of rotational ground motions can be found in published research, however, studies on implications for the seismic response of structural systems are rare. This preliminary study investigates the effects of torsional component of the ground motions (TGM) on the overall seismic response of bridges and interactions among their components. For this purpose, a series of computational models of bridges were developed. The models assume linear-elastic substructure with continuous rigid deck, sliding supports and rigid abutments, and vary key parameters including skew angle (β), normalized stiffness eccentricity between the center of mass and rigidity (ex/r), gap size between deck and abutments, dominant frequency ratios. However, inelastic impact between the superstructure and abutments is modeled explicitly to ensure that consequential in-plane deck rotations are accounted for. It was shown that larger deck rotations due to TGM lead to larger impact forces, which further amplifies deck rotations. The adverse effects may be more pronounced in symmetric bridges and in bridges with significant skew. All response quantities; deformations and substructure forces, are amplified significantly due to TGMs which suggests that current design codes may underestimate seismic deformation and force demand.

Keywords

Skew bridge Rotational ground motion Pounding Impact Eccentricity Torsion 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Authors would like to acknowledge Prof. Dhiman Basu and Prof. Michael Constantinou for providing codes used to generate the TGMs.

References

  1. AASHTO (2009) Guide specifications for LRFD seismic bridge design, 2nd edn. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Mohti A, Pekcan G (2008) Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges. Earthq Eng Eng Vib 7(4):415–426Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach JD (1973) Wave propagation in elastic solids. North-Holland, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  4. Amjadian M, Kalantari A, Agrawal AK (2016) Analytical study of the coupled motions of decks in skew bridges with the deck-abutment collision. J Vib Control 24(7):1300–1321Google Scholar
  5. Anagnostopoulos SA, Kyrkos MT, Stathopoulos KG (2015) Earthquake induced torsion in buildings: critical review and state of the art. Earthq Struct 8(2):305–377Google Scholar
  6. Basu D, Whittaker AS, Constantinou MC (2012a) Characterizing the rotational components of earthquake ground motion. MCEER-12-0005 Technical Report, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Basu D, Whittaker AS, Constantinou MC (2012b) Estimating rotational components of ground motion using data recorded at a single station. J Eng Mech 138(9):1141–1156Google Scholar
  8. Bi K, Hao H (2012) Modelling and simulation of spatially varying earthquake ground motions at sites with varying conditions. Probab Eng Mech 29:92–104Google Scholar
  9. Bi K, Hao H (2013) Numerical simulation of pounding damage to bridge structures under spatially varying ground motions. Eng Struct 46:62–76Google Scholar
  10. Bi K, Hao H, Chouw N (2011) Influence of ground motion spatial variation, site condition and SSI on the required separation distances of bridge structures to avoid seismic pounding. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 40:1027–1043Google Scholar
  11. Bi K, Hao H, Chouw N (2013) 3D FEM analysis of pounding response of bridge structures at canyon site to spatially varying ground motions. Adv Struct Eng 16(4):619–640Google Scholar
  12. Bjornsson S, Stanton J, Eberhard M (1997) Seismic response of skew bridges. In: The 6th U.S. national conference on earthquake engineering, Seattle (WA), USGoogle Scholar
  13. Castellani A, Boffi G (1989) On the rotational components of seismic motion. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 14:751–767Google Scholar
  14. CEN (2005) BS EN 1998-2: Eurocode 8-design of structures for earthquake resistance—part 2: bridges. BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  15. Chouw N, Hao H (2005) Study of SSI and non-uniform ground motion effect on pounding between bridge girders. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 25:717–728Google Scholar
  16. Chouw N, Hao H, Su H (2006) Multi-sided pounding response of bridge structures with non-linear bearings to spatially varying ground excitation. Adv Struct Eng 9(1):55–66Google Scholar
  17. Ghobarah AA, Tso WK (1974) Seismic analysis of skewed highway bridges with intermediate supports. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 2(3):235–248Google Scholar
  18. Goel RK, Chopra AK (2008) Role of shear keys in seismic behavior of bridges crossing fault-rupture zones. J Bridge Eng 13(4):398Google Scholar
  19. He LX, Shrestha B, Hao H, Bi KM, Ren WX (2017) Experimental and three-dimensional finite element method studies on pounding responses of bridge structures subjected to spatially varying ground motions. Adv Struct Eng 20(1):105–124Google Scholar
  20. Huo Y, Zhang J (2013) Effects of pounding and skewness on seismic responses of typical multispan highway bridges using the fragility function method. J Bridge Eng 18(6):499–515Google Scholar
  21. Jankowski R (2005) Non-linear viscoelastic modelling of earthquake-induced structural pounding. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 34(6):595–611Google Scholar
  22. Japan Road Association (JRA) (2004) Specifications for highway bridges—part V seismic design, 5th edn. Maruzen, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  23. Jennings PC (1971) Engineering features of the San Fernando earthquake of February 9, 1971. EERL 71-02, Pasadena (CA). http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechEERL:1971.EERL-71-02. Accessed 21 Sept 2017
  24. Kalantari A, Amjadian M (2010) An approximate method for dynamic analysis of skewed highway bridges with continuous rigid deck. Eng Struct 32(9):2850–2860Google Scholar
  25. Kaviani P, Zareian F, Taciroglu E (2012) Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete bridges with skew-angled seat-type abutments. Eng Struct 45:137–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.06.013 Google Scholar
  26. Kim S-H, Shinozuka M (2003) Effects of seismically induced pounding at expansion joints of concrete bridges. J Eng Mech 129(11):1225–1234Google Scholar
  27. Kozák JT (2009) Tutorial on earthquake rotational effects: historical examples. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99(2B):998–1010Google Scholar
  28. Kun C, Jiang L, Chouw N (2017) Influence of pounding and skew angle on seismic response of bridges. Eng Struct 148:890–906.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.07.024 Google Scholar
  29. Kwon OS, Jeong SH (2013) Seismic displacement demands on skewed bridge decks supported on elastomeric bearings. J Earthq Eng 17(7):998–1022Google Scholar
  30. Lee WHK, Celebi M, Todorovska MI, Igel H (2009) Introduction to the special issue on rotational seismology and engineering applications. Bull Seismol Soc Am 99(2B):945–957Google Scholar
  31. Lee WHK, Evans JR, Huang B-S, Hutt CR, Lin C-J, Liu C-C, Nigbor RL (2012) Measuring rotational ground motions in seismological practice. In: Bormann P (ed) New manual of seismological observatory practice 2 (NMSOP-2). Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam, pp 1–27.  https://doi.org/10.2312/gfz.nmsop-2_is_5.3 Google Scholar
  32. Li B, Chouw N (2014) Experimental investigation of inelastic bridge response under spatially varying excitations with pounding. Eng Struct 79:106–116Google Scholar
  33. Li B, Bi K, Chouw N, Butterworth JW, Hao H (2012) Experimental investigation of spatially varying effect of ground motions on bridge pounding. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 41:1959–1976Google Scholar
  34. Li B, Chouw N, Butterworth JW (2013) Recommendations for seating length of seismically designed bridges. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE) annual conference, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu KY, Chang KC, Lu CH, Cheng WC (2008) Seismic performance of skew bridge with friction type rubber bearings. In: The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  36. Lou L, Zerva A (2005) Effects of spatially variable ground motions on the seismic response of a skewed, multi-span, RC highway bridge. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 25(7–10):729–740Google Scholar
  37. Luco JE, Wong HL (1986) Response of a rigid foundation to a spatially random ground motion. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 14:891–908Google Scholar
  38. Lupoi A, Franchin P, Pinto PE, Monti G (2005) Seismic design of bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 34:327–348Google Scholar
  39. Maleki S (2002) Deck modeling for seismic analysis of skewed slab-girder bridges. Eng Struct 24(10):1315–1326Google Scholar
  40. Maragakis E (1984) A model for the rigid body motions of skew bridges. PhD thesis. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (CA)Google Scholar
  41. Maragakis E, Jennings PC (1987) Analytical models for the rigid body motions. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 15:923–944Google Scholar
  42. MATLAB (2017) Version R2017a. The MathWorks Inc, MATLAB, Massachusetts, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. Meng JY, Lui EM (2000) Seismic analysis and assessment of a skew highway bridge. Eng Struct 22(11):1433–1452Google Scholar
  44. Muthukumar S, DesRoches R (2006) A Hertz contact model with non-linear damping for pounding simulation. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 35:811–828Google Scholar
  45. Mylonakis BG, Papastamatiou D, Psycharis J, Mahmoud K (2001) Simplified modeling of bridge response on soft soil to nonuniform seismic excitation. J Bridge Eng 6:587–597Google Scholar
  46. Newmark NM (1969) Torsion in symmetrical buildings. In: The fourth world conference on earthquake engineering, Santiago de Chile, 13–18 January 1969Google Scholar
  47. PEER. PEER ground motion database. http://ngawest2.berkeley.edu. Accessed 6 Feb 2017
  48. Ruangrassamee A, Kawashima K (2001) Relative displacement response spectra with pounding effect. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 30(10):1511–1538Google Scholar
  49. Rutenberg A, Heidebrecht AC (1985) Response spectra for torsion, rocking and rigid. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 13:543–557Google Scholar
  50. Saadeghvaziri MA, Yazdani-Motlagh AR (2008) Seismic behavior and capacity/demand analyses of three multi-span simply supported bridges. Eng Struct 30(1):54–66Google Scholar
  51. Saiidi M, Orie D (1992) Earthquake design forces in regular highway bridges. Comput Struct 44(5):1047–1054Google Scholar
  52. Sextos AG, Pitilakis KD, Kappos AJ (2003a) Inelastic dynamic analysis of RC bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion, site effects and soil–structure interaction phenomena. Part 1: methodology and analytical tools. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 32:607–627Google Scholar
  53. Sextos AG, Kappos AJ, Pitilakis KD (2003b) Inelastic dynamic analysis of RC bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion, site effects and soil–structure interaction phenomena. Part 2: parametric study. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 32:629–652Google Scholar
  54. Shamsabadi A (2007) Three-dimensional nonlinear soil–abutment–foundation–structure interaction analysis of skewed bridges. PhD dissertation. University of Southern California, Los Angeles (CA)Google Scholar
  55. Shrestha B, He LX, Hao H, Bi K, Ren WX (2018) Experimental study on relative displacement responses of bridge frames subjected to spatially varying ground motion and its mitigation using superelastic SMA restrainers. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 109:76–88Google Scholar
  56. Suwal LP, Kuwano R (2013) Statically and dynamically measured Poisson’s ratio of granular soils on triaxial laboratory specimens. Geotech Test J 36(4):493–505Google Scholar
  57. Tecchio G, Grendene M, Modena C (2012) Pounding effects in simply supported bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion: a case study. Adv Civ Eng 2012:1–10Google Scholar
  58. Timoshenko S (1951) Theory of elasticity. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Wakefield RR, Nazmy AS, Billington DP (1991) Analysis of seismic failure in skew RC bridge. J Struct Eng 117(3):972–986Google Scholar
  60. Won J-H, Mha HS, Kim S-H (2015) Effects of the earthquake-induced pounding upon pier motions in the multi-span simply supported steel girder bridge. Eng Struct 93:1–12Google Scholar
  61. Wood JH, Jennings PC (1971) Damage to freeway structures in the San Fernando earthquake. Bull N Z Soc Earthq Eng 4:347–376Google Scholar
  62. Wu S (2016) Effect of skew on seismic performance of bridges with seat-type abutments. PhD dissertation. University of Nevada, Reno, Reno (NV)Google Scholar
  63. Zanardo G, Hao H, Modena C (2002) Seismic response of multi-span simply supported bridges to a spatially varying earthquake ground motion. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 31:1325–1345Google Scholar
  64. Zerva A, Falamarz-Sheikhabadi MR, Poul MK (2018) Issues with the use of spatially variable seismic ground motions in engineering applications. Geotech Geol Eng 46:225–252Google Scholar
  65. Zhang YH, Li QS, Lin JH, Williams FW (2009) Random vibration analysis of long-span structures subjected to spatially varying ground motions. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 29:620–629Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of NevadaRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations