Seismic strengthening and rehabilitation of RC frame structures with weak beam-column joints by installing wing walls

  • Yuebing Li
  • Yasushi SanadaEmail author
  • Koki Maekawa
  • Haruka Katayama
  • Ho Choi
  • Kazuto Matsukawa
  • Susumu Takahashi
Original Research


A substantial number of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with seismically substandard beam-column joints have suffered severe damage in past earthquakes. This paper focuses on the installation of RC wing walls to upgrade weak beam-column joints and to rehabilitate those moderately damaged by earthquakes. Cyclic load tests were conducted using four specimens representing an exterior 1.5-story frame with a beam-column joint. The first specimen was for a benchmark specimen, the second and third were strengthened by installing wing walls to the interior or exterior of the columns, and the fourth was rehabilitated after the existing frame was moderately damaged. Consequently, the benchmark specimen suffered severe damage to the beam-column joint. The two strengthened specimens showed different damage behaviour: the second one was ductile with beam yielding, and the third one prevented the column-sway mechanism. For the rehabilitated specimen, the beam yielded and the maximum strength was nearly equivalent to that of the second specimen in which wing walls were installed to the interior side of the columns, but damage to the joint was more severe. The test results indicated that the developed wing wall installation method is practical not only for strengthening poorly detailed beam-column joints but also for rehabilitating such joints moderately damaged by earthquakes.


Developing country Post-earthquake rehabilitation Reinforced concrete Retrofitting Unreinforced joint 



This study was financially supported by the Kajima Foundation’s Research Grant and the Asahi Glass Foundation. The design drawings of the investigated building were provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) of the Philippines. The on-site investigation reported herein was assisted by Mr. Hayato Nakamura of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The experimental investigations were conducted with members of the Nakano laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo at the Chiba Experiment Station. The authors are very grateful for the above support.


  1. ACI Committee 318 (2014) Building code requirements for structural concrete. American Concrete Institute, Farmington HillsGoogle Scholar
  2. American Society of Civil Engineers (2017) Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings. ASCE/SEI 41-17Google Scholar
  3. Architectural Institute of Japan (1999) Design guidelines for earthquake resistant reinforce concrete buildings based on inelastic displacement concept (in Japanese). Architectural Institute of Japan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. Gencoglu M, Mobasher B (2007) The strengthening of the deficient RC exterior beam-column joints using CFRP for seismic excitation. In: International conference on structural engineering, 1993–1998. Mechanics and Computation, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  5. Genesio G (2011) Seismic assessment of RC exterior beam-column joints and retrofit with haunches using post-installed anchors. Dissertation, University of StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghobarah A, Said A (2002) Shear strengthening of beam-column joints. Eng Struct 24:881–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 352 (2002) Recommendations for Design of Beam-Column Connections in Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures. ACI 352R-02Google Scholar
  8. Kannan P, Sivakumar S, Bindhu KR (2014) Retrofitting of non-ductile exterior beam-column joints by RC jackets with U-bars and collar bars. Int J Sci Eng Res 5(7):550–554Google Scholar
  9. Karayannis CG, Chalioris CE, Sirkelis GM (2008) Local retrofit of exterior RC beam–column joints using thin RC jackets—An experimental study. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37(5):727–746. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li Y, Sanada Y (2017) Seismic strengthening of existing RC beam-column joints by wing walls. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 46(12):1987–2008. Google Scholar
  11. Li Y, Sanada Y, Takahashi S, Maekawa K, Choi H, Matsukawa K (2016) Seismic performance evaluation and strengthening of RC frames with substandard beam-column joint: lessons learned from the 2013 Bohol earthquake. J Earthq Tsunami 10(2):1–23. Google Scholar
  12. Nakano Y, Maeda M, Kuramoto H, Murakami M (2004) Guideline for post-earthquake damage evaluation and rehabilitation of RC buildings in Japan. In: 13th World conference on earthquake engineering, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  13. Narafu T, Shimizu T, Sanada Y, Tamura Y, Mita N, Takahashi S, Nakamura H, Itsuki A (2015) Lessons learnt from damage to buildings by Bohol earthquake and typhoon Yolanda 2013 in the Philippines. Bull IISEE 49:39–61Google Scholar
  14. New Zealand Standards (2017) Concrete structures standard. NZS 3101-1Google Scholar
  15. Park S, Mosalam KM (2013) Simulation of reinforced concrete frames with non-ductile beam-column joints. Earthq Spectra 29(1):233–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reyes G, Yaser J, Yasser H, Maurizio G, Kypros P (2014) Seismic strengthening of severe damaged beam-column RC joints using CFRP. J Compos Constr 18(2):04013048–1–04013048–10Google Scholar
  17. Sanada Y, Kishimoto I, Kuroki M, Sakashita M, Choi H, Tani M (2009) Preliminary report on damage to buildings due to the september 2 and 30, 2009 Earthquakes in Indonesia. In: Proceedings of the eleventh Taiwan–Korea–Japan joint seminar on earthquake engineering for building structures, Kyoto, pp 297–306Google Scholar
  18. Sashima Y, Nitta Y, Tomonaga T, Sanada Y (2011) Seismic loading test on an R/C exterior beam-column joint without shear reinforcements in Indonesia. In: Proceedings of the thirteenth Taiwan–Japan–Korea joint seminar on earthquake engineering for building structures, Seoul, pp 68–77Google Scholar
  19. Sezen H, Elwood KJ, Whittaker AS, Mosalam KM, Wallace JW, Stanton JF (2000) Structural engineering reconnaissance of the august 17, 1999 earthquake: Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey, PEER-2000/09. Pacific Earthquake Research Center, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  20. Shiohara H, Kusuhara F (2014) The next generation seismic design for reinforced concrete beam-column joints. In: Proceedings of the tenth U.S. National conference on earthquake engineering, Anchorage.
  21. Takahashi S, Sanada Y (2014) Post-earthquake investigation of RC Building due to the 2013 Bohol earthquake. In: The 14th Japan earthquake engineering symposium, Chiba, pp 99–107Google Scholar
  22. The Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association (2001) English version, 1st, standard for seismic evaluation of existing reinforced concrete buildings, guidelines for seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete buildings, 2001, and technical manual for seismic evaluation and seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete buildings, 2001. JBDPA, TokyoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureNortheast Electric Power UniversityJilinChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of EngineeringOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Department of ArchitectureShizuoka Institute of Science and TechnologyShizuokaJapan
  4. 4.Institute of Industrial ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of ArchitectureDaido UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations