Soluble Ligand of the Immune Checkpoint Receptor (sPD-L1) in Blood Serum of Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma
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The content of the soluble ligand of the immune checkpoint receptor (sPD-L1) was determined in the blood serum of 106 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 11 patients with benign kidney tumors by direct ELISA (Human sPD-L1 Platinum ELISA; Affimetrix, eBioscience). The control group included 19 healthy men and 18 women. Serum level of sPD-L1 significantly surpassed the control values in both patients with primary renal cancer (p<0.0001) and in patients examined during disease progression (p<0.05). In patients with benign kidney tumors, the level of this marker was significantly higher than in the control (p<0.05), but lower than in patients with renal cell carcinoma. The sPD-L1 level significantly increased with disease stage (p<0.001); it was higher in the presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes irrespective of their number (N1 or N2) than in the absence of metastases (N0); it was also increased in patients with distant metastases (M1) and patients with grade III-IV tumors in comparison with grade III-IV tumors (p<0.05). The highest sPD-L1 levels were recorded in patients with tumor size corresponding to T2 and T3 and decreased in patients with T4 tumors. Thus, sPD-L1 level in patients with renal cell carcinoma correlated with tumor grade and metastasizing and can be considered as a promising marker in monitoring of the effect of anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy.
Key Wordsimmune checkpoint proteins sPD-L1 renal cell carcinoma blood serum
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