A catalogue of 108 extended planetary nebulae observed by GALEX

  • Ananta C. PradhanEmail author
  • Swayamtrupta Panda
  • Mudumba Parthasarathy
  • Jayant Murthy
  • Devendra K. Ojha
Original Article


We present the ultraviolet (UV) imaging observation of planetary nebulae (PNe) using archival data of Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We found 358 PNe detected by GALEX in near-UV (NUV). We have compiled a catalogue of 108 extended PNe with sizes greater than \(8''\) and provided the angular diameters for all the 108 extended PNe in NUV and 28 in FUV from the GALEX images considering \(3\sigma \) surface brightness level above the background. Of the 108 PNe, 74 are elliptical, 24 are circular and 10 are bipolar in NUV with most being larger in the UV than in the radio, H\(\alpha \) or optical. We derived luminosities for 33 PNe in FUV (\(\mathrm{L}_{\text{FUV}}\)) and 89 PNe in NUV (\(\mathrm{L}_{\text{NUV}}\)) and found that most of the sources are very bright in UV. The FUV emission of the GALEX band includes contribution from prominent emission lines N IV] (1487 Å), C IV (1550 Å), and O III] (1661 Å) whereas the NUV emission includes C III] (1907 Å) and C II (2325 Å) for PNe of all excitation classes. The other emission lines seen in low excitation PNe are O IV] (1403 Å) and N III (1892 Å) in FUV, and O II (2470 Å) and Mg II (2830 Å) in NUV. Similarly the emission lines O V (1371 Å) and He II (1666 Å) strongly contribute in FUV for high and medium excitation PNe but not for low excitation PNe. A mixture of other emission lines seen in all excitation PNe. We have also provided images of 34 PNe in NUV and 9 PNe in FUV.


Planetary nebulae: general Ultraviolet: general Ultraviolet: stars 



We thank Prof. W. A. Weidmann for his valuable and helpful comments. GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in April 2003. We gratefully acknowledge NASA’s support for construction, operation, and science analysis for the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. Author ACP acknowledges financial support received under Fast Track Scheme for Young Scientist SERB-DST, New Delhi, India (File Number: YSS/2015/000114). ACP also acknowledges IUCAA, Pune for providing facilities to carry out the research. SP would like to acknowledge Polish Funding Agency National Science Centre, projects 2015/17/B/ST9/03436/ (OPUS 9) and 2017/26/A/ST9/00756 (MAESTRO 9). SP is thankful to Dr. Abbas Askar for his support and motivation. MP is thankful to Prof. Wako Aoki and Director General of National Astronomical Observatories of Japan (NAOJ) Prof. Saku Tsuneta for their kind encouragement and support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics & AstronomyNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia
  2. 2.Center for Theoretical PhysicsWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical CenterWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Indian Institute of AstrophysicsBangaloreIndia
  5. 5.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)MitakaJapan
  6. 6.Tata Institute of Fundamental ResearchMumbaiIndia

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