Astrophysics and Space Science

, 363:253 | Cite as

A review of low-energy transfers

  • Pooja DuttEmail author
Review Article


Low-energy transfers (LET) for lunar and interplanetary missions has received immense attention of the scientific community during the last few decades as its importance was understood by the success of JAXA’s Hiten, ESA’s SMART-1, NASA’s GRAIL and ARTHEMIS missions, and several proposals, like the BepiColombo, Multi-Moon Orbiter and Europa Orbiter. In this paper the developments in the area of LET and low-thrust trajectories are reviewed. Starting with the basics of the restricted three-body problem and its use in finding invariant manifolds in phase space, the design of LET trajectories and optimisation methods used to find optimal LET and low-thrust transfers is discussed.


Weak stability boundary Ballistic capture Low thrust Invariant manifolds Optimisation methods Phase space Restricted three-body problem 



The author is working in Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) and registered for Ph.D. at Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST). She would like to acknowledge the support provided by VSSC and IIST in carrying out this research work. The author also acknowledges the support and motivation given by Dr. A.K. Anilkumar, Head APMD, VSSC, Shri Abhay Kumar, Group Director AFDG, VSSC, Shri S. Pandian, Deputy Director AERO Entity, VSSC and Dr. Raju K. George, Dean (R&D), IIST. The author is thankful to the reviewers for constructive review comments and the editor for his support, which has helped in bringing this paper to the present form.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Mathematics DivisionVikram Sarabhai Space CentreThiruvananthapuramIndia

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