Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 2271–2277 | Cite as

Porn Is for Masturbation

  • Nicole PrauseEmail author
Commentary

In their Target Article, Leonhardt, Spencer, Butler, and Theobald (2018) advance a structural model to explain seemingly disparate effects of visual sexual stimuli (VSS). They argue that the nature of VSS effects depends on relationship length and VSS content. Specifically, short-term partners are said to accrue benefits from VSS, such as increasing sexual breadth and increasing sexual desire/arousal in the moment, while long-term partners are said to suffer negative effects from VSS due to decreasing intimacy and poorer communication. Further, Leonhardt et al. advance that sexual content (categorized as suggestive, explicit, or paraphilic) is an important mediator of VSS effects. Specifically, they argue that explicit and paraphilic VSS are more likely to influence sexual behaviors than suggestive VSS. Their model is primarily sociological, focused on structures of the family. Individual-level studies, including experiments important for establishing cause, are not strongly...

Notes

References

  1. American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf.
  2. Attwood, F., Smith, C., & Barker, M. (2018). “I”m just curious and still exploring myself’: Young people and pornography. New Media & Society,20(10), 3738–3759.Google Scholar
  3. Baćak a, V., & Štulhofer, A. (2011). Masturbation among sexually active young women in Croatia: Associations with religiosity and pornography use. International Journal of Sexual Health,23(4), 248–257.Google Scholar
  4. Balzarini, R. N., Dobson, K., Chin, K., & Campbell, L. (2017). Does exposure to erotica reduce attraction and love for romantic partners in men? Independent replications of Kenrick, Gutierres, and Goldberg (1989) study 2. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,70, 191–197.Google Scholar
  5. Basson, R. (2000). The Female Sexual Response: A different model. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,26(1), 51–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bivona, J., & Critelli, J. (2009). The nature of women’s rape fantasies: An analysis of prevalence, frequency, and contents. Journal of Sex Research,46(1), 33–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bogle, K. A. (2008). Hooking up: Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York City, NY: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  8. Both, S., & Everaerd, W. (2002). Comment on “The Female Sexual Response: A Different Model”. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,28(1), 11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Breines, J. G., Crocker, J., & Garcia, J. A. (2008). Self-objectification and well-being in women’s daily lives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,34(5), 583–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brotto, L. A. (2013). Mindful sex. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality,22(2), 63–68.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, M., Amoroso, D. M., & Ware, E. E. (1976). Behavioral effects of viewing pornography. Journal of Social Psychology,98(2), 235–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, C. C., Durtschi, J. A., Carroll, J. S., & Willoughby, B. J. (2017). Understanding and predicting classes of college students who use pornography. Computers in Human Behavior,66, 114–121.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, L., & Kohut, T. (2017). The use and effects of pornography in romantic relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology,13, 6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carvalheira, A., Træen, B., & Stulhofer, A. (2015). Masturbation and pornography use among coupled heterosexual men with decreased sexual desire: How many roles of masturbation? Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,41(6), 626–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chadwick, S. B., & van Anders, S. M. (2017). Do women’s orgasms function as a masculinity achievement for men? Journal of Sex Research,54(9), 1141–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2005). A sex difference in features that elicit genital response. Biological Psychology,70(2), 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, D. T., & Klein, J. L. (2017). College students’ online pornography use: Contrasting general and specific structural variables with social learning variables. American Journal of Criminal Justice,43(3), 551–569.Google Scholar
  18. Craig, S. L., McInroy, L., McCready, L. T., & Alaggia, R. (2015). Media: A catalyst for resilience in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth. Journal of LGBT Youth,12(3), 254–275.Google Scholar
  19. Critelli, J. W., & Bivona, J. M. (2008). Women’s erotic rape fantasies: An evaluation of theory and research. Journal of Sex Research,45(1), 57–70.Google Scholar
  20. De Graaf, H., & Wijsen, C. (2017). Seksuele gezondheid in Nederland 2017. Rutgers.Google Scholar
  21. De keersmaecker, J., & Roets, A. (2017). “Fake news”: Incorrect, but hard to correct. The role of cognitive ability on the impact of false information on social impressions. Intelligence,65, 107–110.Google Scholar
  22. Döring, N. (2000). Feminist views of cybersex: Victimization, liberation, and empowerment. Cyberpsychology & Behavior,3(5), 863–884.Google Scholar
  23. Gagnon, J. H. (1985). Attitudes and responses of parents to pre-adolescent masturbation. Archives of Sexual Behavior,14(5), 451–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Garcia, J. R., Gesselman, A. N., Massey, S. G., Seibold-Simpson, S. M., & Merriwether, A. M. (2018). Intimacy through casual sex: Relational context of sexual activity and affectionate behaviours. Journal of Relationships Research,9, e12.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jrr.2018.10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Geer, J. H., & Bellard, H. S. (1996). Sexual content induced delays in unprimed lexical decisions: gender and context effects. Archives of Sexual Behavior,25(4), 379–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Grubbs, J. B., Wilt, J. A., Exline, J. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2018). Predicting pornography use over time: Does self-reported “addiction” matter? Addictive Behaviors,82, 57–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Herbenick, D., Mullinax, M., & Mark, K. (2014). Sexual desire discrepancy as a feature, not a bug, of long-term relationships: Women’s self-reported strategies for modulating sexual desire. Journal of Sexual Medicine,11(9), 2196–2206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hesse, C., & Pedersen, C. L. (2017). Porn sex versus real sex: How sexually explicit material shapes our understanding of sexual anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. Sexuality and Culture,21(3), 754–775.Google Scholar
  29. Hipp, L. E., Low, L. K., & van Anders, S. M. (2012). Exploring women’s postpartum sexuality: Social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors. Journal of Sexual Medicine,9(9), 2330–2341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Impett, E. A., Strachman, A., Finkel, E. J., & Gable, S. L. (2008). Maintaining sexual desire in intimate relationships: The importance of approach goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,94(5), 808–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kohut, T., Fisher, W. A., & Campbell, L. (2016). Perceived effects of pornography on the couple relationship: Initial findings of open-ended, participant-informed, “bottom-up” research. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(2), 585–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kohut, T., & Štulhofer, A. (2018). Is pornography use a risk for adolescent well-being? An examination of temporal relationships in two independent panel samples. PLoS ONE,13(8), e0202048.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Korchmaros, J. D., Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2015). Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: Differences by sexual and gender identification. Journal of Adolescence,40, 54–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Kraus, S. W., Martino, S., & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Clinical characteristics of men interested in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Journal of Behavioral Addictions,5(2), 169–178.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Kvalem, I. L., Træen, B., Lewin, B., & Štulhofer, A. (2014). Self-perceived effects of Internet pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem among young Scandinavian adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace,8(4), 5–22.  https://doi.org/10.5817/cp2014-4-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laan, E., Everaerd, W., & Evers, A. (1995). Assessment of female sexual arousal: Response specificity and construct validity. Psychophysiology,32(5), 476–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Laan, E., Martoredjo, D. K., Hesselink, S., Snijders, N., & van Lunsen, R. H. W. (2016). Young women’s genital self-image and effects of exposure to pictures of natural vulvas. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology,38(4), 249–255.Google Scholar
  38. Leonhardt, N. D., Spencer, T. J., Butler, M. H., & Theobald, A. C. (2018). An organizational framework for sexual media’s influence on short-term versus long-term sexual quality. Archives of Sexual Behavior.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1209-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Leung, A. K., & Robson, W. L. (1993). Childhood masturbation. Clinical Pediatrics,32(4), 238–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ley, D. J. (2018). The pseudoscience behind public health crisis legislation. Porn Studies,5(2), 208–212.Google Scholar
  41. Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2009). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers’ use of the internet: The role of online skills and internet self-efficacy. New Media & Society,12(2), 309–329.Google Scholar
  42. Macapagal, K., Moskowitz, D. A., Li, D. H., Carrión, A., Bettin, E., Fisher, C. B., & Mustanski, B. (2018). Hookup app use, sexual behavior, and sexual health among adolescent men who have sex with men in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health,62(6), 708–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Marcus, A. (2018). Journal corrects, but will not retract, controversial paper on internet porn. Retrieved December 1, 2018, from https://retractionwatch.com/2018/06/13/journal-corrects-but-will-not-retract-controversial-paper-on-internet-porn/.
  44. Mark, K. P. (2012). The relative impact of individual sexual desire and couple desire discrepancy on satisfaction in heterosexual couples. Sexual and Relationship Therapy,27(2), 133–146.Google Scholar
  45. Matković, T., Cohen, N., & Štulhofer, A. (2018). The use of sexually explicit material and its relationship to adolescent sexual activity. Journal of Adolescent Health,62(5), 563–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. McCormack, M., & Wignall, L. (2016). Enjoyment, exploration and education: Understanding the consumption of pornography among young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Sociology,51(5), 975–991.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. McKee, A. (2007). The relationship between attitudes towards women, consumption of pornography, and other demographic variables in a survey of 1,023 consumers of pornography. International Journal of Sexual Health,19(1), 31–45.Google Scholar
  48. Meltzer, A. L., McNulty, J. K., & Maner, J. K. (2015). Women like being valued for sex, as long as it is by a committed partner. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(2), 475–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mirkin, H. (2000). Sex, science, and sin: The Rind report, sexual politics, and American scholarship. Sexuality and Culture,4(2), 82–100.Google Scholar
  50. Oliver, M. B., & Hyde, J. S. (1993). Gender differences in sexuality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,114(1), 29–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Parada, M., Gérard, M., Larcher, K., Dagher, A., & Binik, Y. M. (2016). Neural representation of subjective sexual arousal in men and women. Journal of Sexual Medicine,13(10), 1508–1522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Perry, S. L. (2019). Is the link between pornography use and relational happiness really more about masturbation? Results from two national surveys. Journal of Sex Research.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1556772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Peterson, Z. D., & Janssen, E. (2007). Ambivalent affect and sexual response: The impact of co-occurring positive and negative emotions on subjective and physiological sexual responses to erotic stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior,36(6), 793–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Poulsen, F. O., Busby, D. M., & Galovan, A. M. (2013). Pornography use: Who uses it and how it is associated with couple outcomes. Journal of Sex Research,50(1), 72–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Prause, N. (2017). Evaluate models of high-frequency sexual behaviors already [Commentary]. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(8), 2269–2274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Prause, N., & Siegle, G. (2019). Sexual compulsivity and sex film viewing do not impair partnered intimate experience. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  57. Prause, N., Steele, V. R., Staley, C., & Sabatinelli, D. (2015a). Late positive potential to explicit sexual images associated with the number of sexual intercourse partners. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience,10(1), 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Prause, N., Steele, V. R., Staley, C., Sabatinelli, D., & Hajcak, G. (2015b). Modulation of late positive potentials by sexual images in problem users and controls inconsistent with “porn addiction”. Biological Psychology,109, 192–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Prause, N., Steele, V. R., Staley, C., Sabatinelli, D., & Hajcak, G. (2016). Prause et al. (2015) The latest falsification of addiction predictions. Biological Psychology,120, 159–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ramlagun, P. (2012). “Don’t call me weird, but I normally watch porn”—Girls, sexuality and porn. Agenda,26(3), 31–37.Google Scholar
  61. Ramsey, L. R., Marotta, J. A., & Hoyt, T. (2016). Sexualized, objectified, but not satisfied. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,34(2), 258–278.Google Scholar
  62. Regnerus, M., Price, J., & Gordon, D. (2017). Masturbation and partnered sex: Substitutes or complements? Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(7), 2111–2121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rosen, R. C. (2000). Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in men and women. Current Psychiatry Reports,2(3), 189–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Salisbury, C. M. A., & Fisher, W. A. (2013). “Did you come?” A qualitative exploration of gender differences in beliefs, experiences, and concerns regarding female orgasm occurrence during heterosexual sexual interactions. Journal of Sex Research,51(6), 616–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Santtila, P., Wager, I., Witting, K., Harlaar, N., Jern, P., Johansson, A. D., … Sandnabba, N. K. (2008). Discrepancies between sexual desire and sexual activity: Gender differences and associations with relationship satisfaction. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,34(1), 31–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Séguin, L. J., Rodrigue, C., & Lavigne, J. (2018). Consuming ecstasy: Representations of male and female orgasm in mainstream pornography. Journal of Sex Research,55(3), 348–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sescousse, G., Caldú, X., Segura, B., & Dreher, J.-C. (2013). Processing of primary and secondary rewards: A quantitative meta-analysis and review of human functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews,37(4), 681–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Shor, E., & Seida, K. (2019). “Harder and harder”? Is mainstream pornography becoming increasingly violent and do viewers prefer violent content? Journal of Sex Research.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1451476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Sinnott, J. A., Brumberg, K., Wilson, K. M., Ebot, E. M., Giovannucci, E. L., Mucci, L. A., & Rider, J. R. (2018). Differential gene expression in prostate tissue according to ejaculation frequency. European Urology,74(5), 545–548.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Smith, C., & Attwood, F. (2011). Lamenting sexualization: research, rhetoric and the story of young people’s “sexualization” in the UK Home Office review. Sex Education,11(3), 327–337.Google Scholar
  71. Spišák, S. (2015). “Everywhere they say that it’s harmful but they don’t say how, so I’m asking here’: Young people, pornography and negotiations with notions of risk and harm. Sex Education,16(2), 130–142.Google Scholar
  72. Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnson, J. A., & Ezzell, M. B. (2016). Pornography and the male sexual script: An analysis of consumption and sexual relations. Archives of Sexual Behavior,45(4), 983–994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Træen, B., & Daneback, K. (2013). The use of pornography and sexual behaviour among Norwegian men and women of differing sexual orientation. Sexologies,22(2), e41–e48.Google Scholar
  74. Veit, M., Štulhofer, A., & Hald, G. M. (2016). Sexually explicit media use and relationship satisfaction: A moderating role of emotional intimacy? Sexual and Relationship Therapy,32(1), 58–74.Google Scholar
  75. Voon, V., Mole, T. B., Banca, P., Porter, L., Morris, L., Mitchell, S., … Irvine, M. (2014). Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e102419.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Willoughby, B. J., Carroll, J. S., Busby, D. M., & Brown, C. C. (2016). Differences in pornography use among couples: Associations with satisfaction, stability, and relationship processes. Archives of Sexual Behavior,45(1), 145–158.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Willoughby, B. J., Farero, A. M., & Busby, D. M. (2014). Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior,43(3), 551–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Willoughby, B. J., & Vitas, J. (2012). Sexual desire discrepancy: The effect of individual differences in desired and actual sexual frequency on dating couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior,41(2), 477–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Wright, P. J., Sun, C., Steffen, N. J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2017). Associative pathways between pornography consumption and reduced sexual satisfaction. Sexual and Relationship Therapy.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14681994.2017.1323076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yost, M. R., & Hunter, L. E. (2012). BDSM practitioners’ understandings of their initial attraction to BDSM sexuality: Essentialist and constructionist narratives. Psychology and Sexuality,3(3), 244–259.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations