A Normative Pragmatic Theory of Exhorting
- 63 Downloads
We submit a normative pragmatic theory of exhorting—an account of conceptually necessary and potentially efficacious components of a coherent strategy for securing a sympathetic hearing for efforts to urge and inspire addressees to act on high-minded principles. Based on a Gricean analysis of utterance-meaning, we argue that the concept of exhorting comprises making statements openly urging addressees to perform some high-minded, principled course of action; openly intending to inspire addressees to act on the principles; and intending that addressees’ recognition of the intentions to urge and inspire creates reasons for addressees to grant a sympathetic hearing to what the speaker has to say. We show that the theory accounts for the design of Abraham Lincoln’s Cooper Union address. By doing so we add to the inventory of reasons why social actors make arguments, continue a line of research showing the relationship of arguing to master speech acts, and show that making arguments can be an effective strategy for inspiring principled action.
KeywordsExhorting Normative pragmatic theory Grice Speech act theory Lincoln’s Cooper Union address
- Black, E. 1965. Rhetorical criticism: A study in method. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
- Briggs, J.C. 2005. Lincoln’s speeches reconsidered. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Cooper, H., and J. Zeleny. 2011, January 13. Obama calls for a new era of civility in U.S. politics. New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from www.nytimes.com.
- Corry, J.A. 2003. Lincoln at Cooper Union: The speech that made him president. Bloomington: Xlibris.Google Scholar
- Egerton, D.R. 2010. Year of meteors: Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, and the election that brought on the Civil War. New York: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
- Hoefler, J. 2016, August 10. Do menacing comments about Hillary Clinton cross the First Amendment line? Washington Post. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from www.washingtonpost.com.
- Holzer, H. 2004. Lincoln at Cooper Union: The speech that made Abraham Lincoln president. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Innocenti, B. 2011b. Arguing by apostrophizing. In Argumentation: Cognition and community, ed. F. Zenker. CD-ROM. Windsor, ON: Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation.Google Scholar
- Innocenti, B. 2011c. Analyzing repetition in argumentation. In Proceedings of the seventh international conference of the international society for the study of argumentation, ed. F.H. van Eemeren, B. Garssen, D. Godden, and G. Mitchell, 868–874. CD-ROM. Amsterdam: Sic Sat.Google Scholar
- Innocenti, B., and F.J. Kauffeld. 2013. Connecting commitments to actions by exhorting. Presented at the National Communication Association Annual Convention, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, S. 1983. When worlds collide: An application of field theory to rhetorical conflict. In Argument in transition: Proceedings of the third summer conference on argumentation, ed. D. Zarefsky, M.O. Sillars, and J. Rhodes, 749–755. Annandale: Speech Communication Association.Google Scholar
- Kauffeld, F.J. 1987. Rhetoric and practical necessity: A view for the study of speech acts. In Proceedings of the fifth SCA/AFA conference on argumentation: Argument and critical practices, ed. J.W. Wenzel, 83–95. Annandale: Speech Communication Association.Google Scholar
- Kauffeld, F.J. 1995. On the difference between assumptions and presumptions. In Argumentation and values: Proceedings of the ninth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation, ed. S. Jackson, 509–514. Annandale: Speech Communication Association.Google Scholar
- Kauffeld, F.J. 2001. Argumentation, discourse, and the rationality underlying Grice’s analysis of utterance-meaning. In Cognition in language use, ed. T.E.T. Németh, 149–163. Antwerp: International Pragmatics Association.Google Scholar
- Kauffeld, F.J. 2003. The ordinary practice of presuming and presumption with special attention to veracity and the burden of proof. In Anyone who has a view: Theoretical contributions to the study of argumentation, ed. F.H. van Eemeren, J.A. Blair, C.A. Willard, and A.F. Snoeck Henkemans, 133–146. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kauffeld, F.J. 2009b. What we are learning about the pragmatics of the arguers’ obligations? In Concerning argument, ed. S. Jacobs, 1–31. Washington DC: National Communication Association.Google Scholar
- Kauffeld, F.J., and B. Innocenti. 2016. Inducing a sympathetic (empathic) reception for exhortation. In Argumentation, objectivity and bias: Proceedings of the 11 th international conference of the Ontario society for the study of argumentation (OSSA), 18–21 May 2016, ed. P. Bondy and L. Benaquista, 1–15. Windsor, ON: Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/ossaarchive/OSSA11/papersandcommentaries/127.
- Kauffeld, F.J., and May, L. 2006. Exhorting and inciting. In Engaging argument: Selected papers from the 2005 NCA/AFA summer conference on argumentation, ed. P. Riley, 318–325. Washington, DC: National Communication Association.Google Scholar
- Krause, S.R. 2002. Liberalism and honor. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Lincoln, A. 1860. Cooper Union address. Reprinted in: H. Holzer (2004) Lincoln at Cooper Union: The speech that made Abraham Lincoln president, 249-284. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- O’Keefe, D.J. 1982. The concepts of argument and arguing. In Advances in argumentation theory and research, ed. J.R. Cox and C.A. Willard, 3–23. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
- Pinto, R.C. 1991. Generalizing the notion of argumentation. In Proceedings of the second international conference on argumentation, ed. F. H. van Eemeren, R. Grootendorst, J. A. Blair, and C. A. Willard, vol. 1, 137–146. Amsterdam: SIC SAT.Google Scholar
- Pinto, R.C. 2007. Burdens of rejoinder. In Reason reclaimed: Essays in honor of J. Anthony Blair and Ralph H. Johnson, ed. H.V. Hansen and R.C. Pinto, 75–88. Newport News: Vale Press.Google Scholar
- Shakespeare, W. 1993. Julius Caesar. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/.
- Stampe, D.W. 1967. On the acoustic behavior of rational animals. Madison: University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
- Stampe, D.W. 1975. Meaning and truth in the theory of speech acts. In speech acts, ed. P. Cole and J.L. Morgan, 1–39. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Strawson, P.F. 1974. Freedom and resentment and other essays. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Sweeny, J. 2017, April 29. Not covered under the first amendment: The ACLU is wrong about Trump and incitement to violence. Salon. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from www.salon.com.
- van Eemeren, F.H., and R. Grootendorst. 2004. A systematic theory of argumentation: The pragma-dialectical approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- van Eemeren, F.H., R. Grootendorst, S. Jackson, and S. Jacobs. 1993. Reconstructing argumentative discourse. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
- Wilentz, S. 2009, July 14. Who Lincoln was and was not: The images and illusions of this momentous bicentenntial year. The New Republic. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from www.newrepublic.com.