Extraction and recovery response of Penaeus indicus chitosan against Aeromonas hydrophila Ah17 infected snakehead murrel Channa striata
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Chitosan is one of the most versatile value-added biomaterial obtained from the shell waste of crustaceans. The present study focused on chitosan extraction from the exoskeleton of crab, Portunus pelagicus (P. pelagicus), and shrimp, Penaeus indicus (P. indicus); further therapeutic properties were evaluated against the bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila Ah17 (A. hydrophila Ah17) in economically important freshwater fish Channa striata (C. striata). Chitosan was extracted by chemical method from the exoskeleton of P. pelagicus (CHC) and P. indicus (CHS). Physicochemical properties like ash value and fat binding capacity were analysed. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed major peaks of primary NH2 and OH groups. The degree of deacetylation (DD) of CHC and CHS were observed as 72% and 84%, respectively. Surface morphology of CHC and CHS was also examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on DD value, CHS was selected for in vivo studies on A. hydrophila Ah17-infected snakehead murrel C. striata. After chitosan (200 μl and 400 μl) treatment, haematological parameters were significantly altered in a dose-dependent manner. Total serum protein was significantly increased, and the liver enzymes profile was significantly decreased when compared with the disease control group in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of pro-inflammatory gene (IL-8) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the level of expression of anti-inflammatory gene (TGF-β) was significantly down-regulated in chitosan-treated C. striata when compared to the disease control fish. Thus, the present study demonstrated that chitosan extracted from P. indicus modulates the immune system of C. striata (infected with A. hydrophila Ah17) by altering the haematological, serum biochemical parameters and modulates the immune-related gene expression level when compared to disease control group in a dose-dependent manner.
KeywordsPortunus pelagicus Penaeus indicus Degree of deacetylation Aeromonas hydrophila Ah17 Channa striata
The authors would like to acknowledge DBT-MKU IPLS programme, Genomics Common Instrumentation facility and UGC-NRCBS Instrumentation facility, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu, India.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
International, national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of experimental animals were followed.
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