Is a taurine supplement necessary in fishmeal-based feeds for juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?
- 13 Downloads
The effect of taurine supplementation of fishmeal-based feeds for juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was investigated. Fish (initial weight ca. 5 g) were reared for 90 days in 12 concrete tanks (1 m3), with 50 fish in each tank. Four feeds (44% crude protein (CP) and 17% lipids (L)) containing 0 (control (CTRL)), 0.4 (T4), 0.7 (T7) and 1.0 (T10) % taurine were prepared and were fed to apparent visual satiation to triplicate groups of fish. The effects on fish growth, feed utilization, proximate chemical composition, haematology, immune biomarkers and muscle morphometry were examined. An increase in the dietary taurine incorporation resulted in progressive increases in the growth metrics, with the highest values being observed for fish receiving the T10 feed (weight gain 22 vs 18 g/fish in CTRL; protein productive value 31 vs 28% in CTRL). Taurine addition at all levels significantly increased the fish protein percentage, but the percentage lipid was reduced significantly in T4 fish only (7.8% compared with 9.4% in CTRL fish). Taurine supplementation resulted in elevated blood lymphocyte and monocyte counts and increased serum phagocytic and lysozyme activities. Taurine addition at 1% (T10 feed), the suggested level to boost growth, altered the dorsal muscle cellularity and myofibril ultrastructure, suggesting enhanced muscle function and firmness in comparison with that of the fish given the CTRL feed.
KeywordsDiet formulation Growth metrics Haematology Immune biomarkers Muscle ultrastructure
4 g taurine/kg diet (0.4%)
7 g taurine/kg diet (0.7%)
10 g taurine/kg diet (1%)
Transmission electron microscopy
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.
- AOAC (2005) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Barral JM, Epstein HF (1999) Protein machines and self-assembly in muscle organization. Bioassay 10:812–823Google Scholar
- Buscaino G, Filiciotto F, Buffa G, Bellante A, Stefano VD, Assenza A, Fazio F, Caola G, Mazzola S (2010) Impact of an acoustic stimulus on the motility and blood parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Mar Environ Res 69:136–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Douglass JW, Jane KW (2010) Schalm’s veterinary hematology. Wiley-Blackwell, London, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- Doumas B, Bayse D, Carter R et al (1981) A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation. Clin Chem 27:1642–1650Google Scholar
- Ellis AE (1990) Lysozyme assays. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher TC, Anderson DP, Roberson BS, Van Muiswinkel WB (eds) Techniques in fish immunology. SOS Publications, Fair Haven, Fair Haven, pp 101–103Google Scholar
- Kato K, Yamamoto M, Peerapon K et al (2014) Effects of dietary taurine levels on epidermal thickness and scale loss in red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquac Res 45:1818–1824Google Scholar
- Kotzamanis Y P, Karacostas I, Grigorakis K et al (2012) Taurine supplementation of low fish meal diets improves growth performance and quality of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). World Aquaculture Society Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic, 1–5 September, p134Google Scholar
- López LM, Flores-Ibarra M, Banuelos-Vargas I et al (2015) Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on growth performance, hematological and biochemical status, and liver histology of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi). Fish Physiol Biochem 41:921–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy K, Hischenhuber C, Joyce N (2000) Determination of total taurine in pet foods by liquid chromatography of the dansyl derivative: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 83:784–788Google Scholar
- NRC (1993) Nutrient requirements of warm water fishes and shellfishes. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Rimoldi S, Finzi G, Terova G et al (2016) Butyrate and taurine exert a mitigating effect on the inflamed distal intestine of European sea bass fed with a high percentage of soybean meal. Fish Aquaculture Sci 19(40):1–14Google Scholar
- SAS (ed) (2004) SAS/STAT software 9, 1st edn. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- Simpson RJ, Neuberger MR, Liu TY (1976) Complete amino acid analysis of proteins from a single hydrolysate. J Biol Chem 25:1936–1940Google Scholar
- Villegas G, Mulero V (2015) Current knowledge on the development and functionality of immune responses in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In: Vazquez F, Muñoz-Cueto J (eds) Biology of European seabass. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, UK, pp 342–373Google Scholar