Aquaculture International

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 31–39 | Cite as

Acute response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to high-salinity reductions in osmosis-, metabolism-, and immune-related enzyme activities

  • Min Shen
  • Yanting Cui
  • Renjie Wang
  • Tiantian Dong
  • Haibin Ye
  • Shusheng Wang
  • Ranghui Fu
  • Yuquan LiEmail author


This study investigates the acute responses of pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to an abrupt reduction of salinity in osmosis-, metabolism-, and immune-related enzyme activities in the hemolymph of L. vannamei previously reared at 56‰ salinity. Three salinity reductions (56 to 54‰, 56 to 52‰, and 56 to 48‰) were used, and L. vannamei was directly transferred from the salinity of 56 to 54‰, 52‰, and 48‰, respectively. The hemolymph was collected from five shrimp in each group at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h to detect the change of ATPase (including Na+/K+-ATPase and T-ATPase), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), acidic phosphatase (ACP), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Our results showed that no shrimp death occurred after an abrupt reduction of salinity. However, ATPase, SOD, ACP, and AKP enzyme activities in three salinity reductions all changed significantly, and the activities of T-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase showed a single peak trend during the process of experiment. The SOD activity peaked at 24 h after the salinity was decreased. ACP activities remained an increasing trend within 48 h after salinity was decreased in the three salinity treatments. A single peak trend was found in AKP activity and peaked at 18 h and then decreased significantly. The results indicate that an abrupt decrease in salinity significantly affected ATPase, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities. Osmotic, metabolism, and immune-related enzyme activities of L. vannamei are sensitive parameters to respond to an abrupt drop of salinity.


Litopenaeus vannamei High salinity Enzyme activity 


Funding information

This project was supported by the Shrimp & Crab Innovation Team of Shandong Agriculture Research System (SDAIT-15-011), the National Science Foundation of China (No. 31802269), the Open Fund of Shandong Key Laboratory of Disease Control in Mariculture (KF201901), and Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Grant No. ZR2019BC013), and this research was financially supported also by “First Class Fishery Discipline” Programme in Shandong Province, China, and Postgraduate Innovation Project of Qingdao Agricultural University (QYC201725 and QYC201816).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


  1. Dai XL, Zhang LT, Zang WL, Deng PP, Zou WL, Ding FJ (2012) Effect of Ca2+, Mg2+and salinity on survival, growth and shrimp taste of Litopenaeus vannamei. J Fish China 36:914–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. DaSilva AZ, Zanette J, Ferreira JF, Guzenski J, Marques MRF, Bainy ACD(2005) Effects of salinity on biomarker responses in Crassostrea rhizophorae( Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to diesel oil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 62:376–382Google Scholar
  3. Du XF, Kong J, Luo K, Wang H, Zhang RB, Wang QY, Xu SY (2013) Preliminary studies on the broodstock maturation of Litopenaeus vannamei from low-salinity farming ponds. J Fish Sci China 20:982–989Google Scholar
  4. Fang WH, Wang H, Lai QF, Li GB (2001) Activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from the gill of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). J Shanghai Fish Univ 02:140–144Google Scholar
  5. Furriel RP, McNamara JC, Leone FA (2000) Characterization of (Na+, K+)-ATPase in gill microsomes of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 126:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gao J, Zhao XP, Zhan FF, Cheng K (2008) Effects of lead on acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in Carassias auratu. Sichuan J Zool 27:201–204Google Scholar
  7. Gao WH, Tan BP, Mai KS, Chi SY, Liu HY, Dong XH, Yang QH (2013) Dentification of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei induced by long-term low-salinity stress. Periodical Ocean U China 43:9–46Google Scholar
  8. Ji YB, Yu WW, Sun JH, Wang QK, Zhao CM, Chen CX (2008) Effecst of sudden drop in salinilty on activiites of antioxidant enzymes of Litopenaeus vanname. J Tianjin Agric Univ 15:19–23Google Scholar
  9. Li YQ, Li YS, Zhao FZ (2015) Effect of salinity changes on osmotic-,metabolic-,and immune-related enzymeactivities in Exopalaemon carinicauda. Acta Ecol Sin 35:7229–7235Google Scholar
  10. Li N, Wang RJ, Zhao YC, Shen M, Su WH, Zhao C, Li YQ (2017) Effects of high salinity on growth index, plasma osmotic pressure and Na+-K+-ATPase activities of Litopenaeus vannamei. J Zhejiang Ocean Univ (Natural Science) 36:196–201Google Scholar
  11. Li N, Zhao YC, Wang RJ, Shen M, Li YQ (2018) Effects of high salinity on digestive and immunity-related enzymes in Litopenaeus vannamei. Acta Ecol Sin 38:1411–1417Google Scholar
  12. Memz A, Blake BF (1980) Experiments on the growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone. Exp Mar Biol Ecol 48:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Morris S (2001) Neuroendocrine regulation of osmoregulation and the evolution of air-breathing in decapod crustaceans. J Exp Biol 204:979–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pinoni SP, López Mananes AA (2004) Alkaline phosphatase activity sensitive to environmental salinity and dopamine in muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 307:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pipe RK (1990) Hydrolytic enzymes associated with the granular haemocytes of the marine mussel mytilus edulis. The HistochemJ 22:596–603Google Scholar
  16. Qi L, Gu XL, Jiang KJ, Qiao ZG (2013) Effect of salinity on the survival, growth and Na+/K+-ATPase activity of early juvenile mud crabs, Scylla paramamosain. Mar Sci 37:56–60Google Scholar
  17. Shen YC, Chen ZZ, Liu L, Li ZL, WU ZH (2012) The effects of salinity and nutrition on molt and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei. J Fish China 36:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang XQ, Ma S, Dong SL (2004) Studies on the biology and cultural ecology of Litopenaeus vannamei : a review. Trans Oceanol Limnol 04:94–100Google Scholar
  19. Wang C, Tian Y, Chng YQ, Chen BY, Fu GH, Ma YP (2013) Effect of salinity stress on immune enzyme activity of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus). J Agric Sci Technol 15:163–168Google Scholar
  20. Yin F, Sun P, Peng SM, Shi ZH (2011) Effects of low salinity stress on the antioxidant enzyme activities in juvenile Pampus argenteus liver and the ATPase activities in its gill and kidney. Chin J Appl Ecol 22:1059–1066Google Scholar
  21. Yokota Y, Nakano E (1982) Comparative studies on particulate acid phosphatases in sea urchin eggs. Comp Biochem Phys Part B:Comp Biochem 71:563–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yu DG, Yang YQ, Wang HY, Xie J, Yu EM, Wang GJ, Gong WB (2011) The effect of salinity change on physiology and biochemistry of Epinephelus coioides. J Fish China 35:719–727Google Scholar
  23. Yun YS, Lee YN (2004) Purification and some properties of superoxide dismutase from Deinococcus radiophilus, the UV-resistant bacterium. Extremophiles 8:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang WQ (1990) Introduction to Litopenaeus vannamei: one of the most important breeding species in the world. Mar Sci 3:69–72Google Scholar
  25. Zhang KF, Zhang ZP, Chen Y, lin P, Wang YL (2007) Antioxidant defense system in animals. Chinese J Zool 42:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang KQ, Pan LQ, Chen WB (2016a) Effect of salinity pperiodic mutates on water quality, growthand the status health of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc-based culture tanks. Trans Ocean Limnol 3:75–82Google Scholar
  27. Zhang D, Wang F, Dong SL (2016b) Effects of periodic salinity fluctuations on free amino acid contents and transcription patterns of osmo-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei. J Fish Sci China 23:130–136Google Scholar
  28. Zhao L, Long XW, Wu XG, He J, Shi YH, Zhang GY, Cheng YX (2016) Effects of water salinity on osmoregulation and physiological metabolism of adult male chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Acta Hydrobiol Sinica 40:27–34Google Scholar
  29. Zhao YC, Li YQ, Sun ZP, Wang SS, Fu RJ, Zhang SL (2018) Effects of high-salinity domestication gradient, speed, and mode on weight gain, activity, and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. Prog Fish Sci 39:119–125Google Scholar
  30. Zhou SQ (2006) Effects of environmental stress on the immune factors in Scylla serrata. Ocean University of China, QingdaoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Science and Engineering CollegeQingdao Agricultural UniversityQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Marine Biology Institute of Shandong ProvinceQingdaoChina
  3. 3.Binzhou Fisheries Technology Extension StationBinzhouChina
  4. 4.Shandong Youfa Aquatic Products Co., LTDBinzhouChina

Personalised recommendations