Microencapsulation of anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and its application on a pigment supplied diet to fantail goldfish (Carassius auratus)
- 58 Downloads
Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained an important position in the food industry because of its high anthocyanins content, related to the persistent red calyx of its flowers as the major component. Moreover, it has been used as a food colorant and active ingredient to develop food with some health benefits. The effect of addition of microencapsulated anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa in a fish feed was evaluated using Carassius auratus as a study model. Anthocyanins were microencapsulated with maltodextrins (10 DE) and microcapsules structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Microcapsules were added to fish diet (D) at 150, 300, and 450 mg anthocyanin/kg of diet. Fantail goldfish were feeding for 8 weeks and the feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), growth rate (GR), specific growth rate (SGR), survival, and weight gain (WG) were evaluated. Skin chromatophores from the head, dorsal, and caudal fin of each treatment were observed by light microscopy. Microencapsulation efficiency was 90 ± 0.2%. The microcapsules showed a spherical shape, the mean size was 4.0 μm, and the powder showed a pink-red color. Feed intake and survival were similar to all diets (p > 0.05). D150 and D300 showed a significant variation in GR, SGR, and WG (p < 0.05) compared with other diets. Fish fed with D450 showed the highest increase in color compared with control diet; however, fish size is lower than D300. Size and color are important parameters in the marketing of Carassius, and these results suggest that microencapsulation can be used as anthocyanins carrier during fish diet manufacture being an alternative to provide natural pigments that enhance growth and pigmentation of fantail goldfish.
KeywordsMicroencapsulated anthocyanins Hibiscus sabdariffa Aquaculture Carassius auratus Supplemented diet Skin pigmentation
This study was financially supported by the Fondo Mixto CONACYT- Gobierno del Estado de Morelos-Mexico (FOMIX-93763), SIP-IPN, and COFAA-IPN.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This material has not been published in whole or in part elsewhere; the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication in another journal; all authors have been personally and actively involved in substantive work leading to the manuscript, and will hold themselves jointly and individually responsible for its content.
- AACC (2000) Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemist, 10th edn. AACC International, St PaulGoogle Scholar
- Adewole AM (2014) Effects of roselle as dietary additive on growth performance and production economy of Clarias gariepinus. J Emerg Trends Eng Appl Sci 5:1–8Google Scholar
- Ayolié K, Kone M, Th K et al (2015) Anthocyanin production in calyx and callus of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and its impact on antioxidant activity. J Pharmacogn Phytochem JPP 4:9–15Google Scholar
- Babalola S, Babalola A, Aworh O (2001) Compositional attributes of the calyces of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). J Food Technol Afr 6:133–134Google Scholar
- Camelo-Méndez GA, Ragazzo-Sánchez JA, Jiménez-Aparicio AR, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, Paredes-López O, del Villar-Martínez AA (2013) Comparative study of anthocyanin and volatile compounds content of four varieties of Mexican Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) by multivariable analysis. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 68:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Camelo-Méndez GA, Jara-Palacios MJ, Escudero-Gilete ML, Gordillo B, Hernanz D, Paredes-López O, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, del Villar-Martínez AA, Heredia FJ (2016) Comparatives study of phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and color-composition relation of roselle cultivars with contrasting pigmentation. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 71:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Das AP (2016) Carotenoids and pigmentation in ornamental fish. J Aquac Mar Biol 4(4):00093Google Scholar
- Gradinaru G, Biliaderis CG, Kallithraka S, Kefalas P, Garcia-Viguera C (2003) Thermal stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. anthocyanins in solution and in solid state: effects of copigmentation and glass transition. Food Chem 83:423–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00125-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jegede T (2010) Control of reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus ( Linnaeus 1758 ) using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ( Linn .) leaf meal as reproduction inhibitor. J Agric Sci 2:149–154Google Scholar
- Özkan G, Bilek SE (2014) Microencapsulation of natural food colourants. Int J Nutr Food Sci 3:145–156Google Scholar
- Pérez-Escalante V, Aguirre-Guzmán G, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, Del Villar-Martínez AA (2012) Effect of anthocyanin’s extract from flour of roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on growth and pigmentation of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Thai J Vet Med 42:107–111Google Scholar
- Wang W, Dufour C, Zhou W (2015a) Impacts of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of soy sauce powders using maltodextrin as auxiliary drying carrier. CYTA J Food 13:548–555Google Scholar