Advertisement

Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1801–1811 | Cite as

Microencapsulation of anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and its application on a pigment supplied diet to fantail goldfish (Carassius auratus)

  • Pablo Emilio Vanegas-Espinoza
  • Verónica Pérez-Escalante
  • Gabriel Aguirre-Guzman
  • Javier Darío Hoyos-Leyva
  • Alma Angélica Del Villar-MartínezEmail author
Article
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained an important position in the food industry because of its high anthocyanins content, related to the persistent red calyx of its flowers as the major component. Moreover, it has been used as a food colorant and active ingredient to develop food with some health benefits. The effect of addition of microencapsulated anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa in a fish feed was evaluated using Carassius auratus as a study model. Anthocyanins were microencapsulated with maltodextrins (10 DE) and microcapsules structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Microcapsules were added to fish diet (D) at 150, 300, and 450 mg anthocyanin/kg of diet. Fantail goldfish were feeding for 8 weeks and the feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), growth rate (GR), specific growth rate (SGR), survival, and weight gain (WG) were evaluated. Skin chromatophores from the head, dorsal, and caudal fin of each treatment were observed by light microscopy. Microencapsulation efficiency was 90 ± 0.2%. The microcapsules showed a spherical shape, the mean size was 4.0 μm, and the powder showed a pink-red color. Feed intake and survival were similar to all diets (p > 0.05). D150 and D300 showed a significant variation in GR, SGR, and WG (p < 0.05) compared with other diets. Fish fed with D450 showed the highest increase in color compared with control diet; however, fish size is lower than D300. Size and color are important parameters in the marketing of Carassius, and these results suggest that microencapsulation can be used as anthocyanins carrier during fish diet manufacture being an alternative to provide natural pigments that enhance growth and pigmentation of fantail goldfish.

Keywords

Microencapsulated anthocyanins Hibiscus sabdariffa Aquaculture Carassius auratus Supplemented diet Skin pigmentation 

Notes

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Fondo Mixto CONACYT- Gobierno del Estado de Morelos-Mexico (FOMIX-93763), SIP-IPN, and COFAA-IPN.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclaimer

This material has not been published in whole or in part elsewhere; the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication in another journal; all authors have been personally and actively involved in substantive work leading to the manuscript, and will hold themselves jointly and individually responsible for its content.

References

  1. AACC (2000) Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemist, 10th edn. AACC International, St PaulGoogle Scholar
  2. Adewole AM (2014) Effects of roselle as dietary additive on growth performance and production economy of Clarias gariepinus. J Emerg Trends Eng Appl Sci 5:1–8Google Scholar
  3. Akhavan Mahdavi S, Jafari SM, Assadpoor E, Dehnad D (2016) Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin. Int J Biol Macromol 85:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali BH, Al Wabel N, Blunden G (2005) Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother Res 19:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amar EC, Kiron V, Satoh S, Watanabe T (2001) Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanisms in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquac Res 32 Suppl:162–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayolié K, Kone M, Th K et al (2015) Anthocyanin production in calyx and callus of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and its impact on antioxidant activity. J Pharmacogn Phytochem JPP 4:9–15Google Scholar
  7. Babalola S, Babalola A, Aworh O (2001) Compositional attributes of the calyces of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). J Food Technol Afr 6:133–134Google Scholar
  8. Bordenave N, Hamaker BR, Ferruzzi MG (2014) Nature and consequences of non-covalent interactions between flavonoids and macronutrients in foods. Food Funct 5:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Camelo-Méndez GA, Ragazzo-Sánchez JA, Jiménez-Aparicio AR, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, Paredes-López O, del Villar-Martínez AA (2013) Comparative study of anthocyanin and volatile compounds content of four varieties of Mexican Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) by multivariable analysis. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 68:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camelo-Méndez GA, Jara-Palacios MJ, Escudero-Gilete ML, Gordillo B, Hernanz D, Paredes-López O, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, del Villar-Martínez AA, Heredia FJ (2016) Comparatives study of phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and color-composition relation of roselle cultivars with contrasting pigmentation. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 71:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa SS, Souza Machado B, Martin AR et al (2015) Drying by spray drying in the food industry : micro-encapsulation , process parameters and main carriers used. Afr J Food Sci 9:462–470.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJFS2015.1279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Das AP (2016) Carotenoids and pigmentation in ornamental fish. J Aquac Mar Biol 4(4):00093Google Scholar
  13. Desai KGH, Park HJ (2005) Recent evelopments in microencapsulation of food ingredients. Dry Technol 7:1361–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Earle KE (1995) The nutritional requirements of ornamental fish. Vet Q 17:53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El Mesallamy AD, Ahmad M, Souleman AA et al (2016) Effects of Roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)-supplemented diets on growth and disease (Aeromonas hydrophila) resistance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Egypt Pharm J 15:78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ersus S, Yurdagel U (2007) Microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) by spray drier. J Food Eng 80:805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gharsallaoui A, Roudaut G, Chambin O, Voilley A, Saurel R (2007) Applications of spray-drying in microencapsulation of food ingredients: an overview. Food Res Int 40:1107–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gomes E, Dias J, Silva P et al (2002) Utilization of natural and synthetic sources of carotenoids in the skin pigmentation of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Eur Food Res Technol 214:287–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-001-0475-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gouveia L, Rema P, Pereira O, Empis J (2003) Colouring ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) with microalgal biomass. Aquac Nutr 9:123–129.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2095.2003.00233.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gradinaru G, Biliaderis CG, Kallithraka S, Kefalas P, Garcia-Viguera C (2003) Thermal stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. anthocyanins in solution and in solid state: effects of copigmentation and glass transition. Food Chem 83:423–436.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00125-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ho ALFC, Orlando Bertran NM, Lin J (2013) Dietary esterified astaxanthin concentration effect on dermal coloration and chromatophore physiology in Spinecheek Anemonefish, Premnas biaculeatus. J World Aquac Soc 44:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jakobek L (2015) Interactions of polyphenols with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Food Chem 175:556–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jegede T (2010) Control of reproduction in Oreochromis niloticus ( Linnaeus 1758 ) using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ( Linn .) leaf meal as reproduction inhibitor. J Agric Sci 2:149–154Google Scholar
  24. Kalinowski CT, Robaina LE, Izquierdo MS (2011) Effect of dietary astaxanthin on the growth performance, lipid composition and post-mortem skin colouration of red porgy Pagrus pagrus. Aquac Int 19:811–823.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-010-9401-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu X, Wang H, Chen Z (2016) Effect of carotenoids on body colour of discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus axelrodi Schultz, 1960). Aquac Res 47:1309–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1111/are.12591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. March BE, Hajen WE, Deacon G, MacMillan C, Walsh MG (1990) Intestinal absorption of astaxanthin, plasma astaxanthin concentration, body weight, and metabolic rate as determinants of flesh pigmentation in salmonid fish. Aquaculture 90:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Özkan G, Bilek SE (2014) Microencapsulation of natural food colourants. Int J Nutr Food Sci 3:145–156Google Scholar
  28. Paripatananont T, Tangtrongpairoj J, Sailasuta A, Chansue N (1999) Effect of astaxanthin on the pigmentation of goldfish Carassius auratus. J World Aquac Soc 30:454–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pérez-Alonso C, Beristain CI, Lobato-Calleros C, Rodríguez-Huezo ME, Vernon-Carter EJ (2006) Thermodynamic analysis of the sorption isotherms of pure and blended carbohydrate polymers. J Food Eng 77:753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pérez-Escalante V, Aguirre-Guzmán G, Vanegas-Espinoza PE, Del Villar-Martínez AA (2012) Effect of anthocyanin’s extract from flour of roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on growth and pigmentation of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Thai J Vet Med 42:107–111Google Scholar
  31. Ré MI (1998) Microencapsulation by spray drying. Dry Technol 16:1195–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sales J, Janssens GPJ (2003) Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish. Aquat Living Resour 16:533–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sartori T, Consoli L, Hubinger MD, Menegalli FC (2015) Ascorbic acid microencapsulation by spray chilling: production and characterization. LWT - Food Sci Technol 63:353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Silva PI, Stringheta PC, Teofilo RF, De Oliveira IRN (2013) Parameter optimization for spray-drying microencapsulation of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) peel extracts using simultaneous analysis of responses. J Food Eng 117:538–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sinha A, Asimi OA (2007) China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis) petals: a potent natural carotenoid source for goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Aquac Res 38:1123–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tonon RV, Brabet C, Hubinger MD (2010) Anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of spray-dried açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice produced with different carrier agents. Food Res Int 43:907–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Torrissen OJ (1989) Pigmentation of salmonids: interactions of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin on pigment deposition in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 79:363–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang W, Dufour C, Zhou W (2015a) Impacts of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of soy sauce powders using maltodextrin as auxiliary drying carrier. CYTA J Food 13:548–555Google Scholar
  39. Wang X, Yuan Y, Yue T (2015b) The application of starch-based ingredients in flavor encapsulation. Starch/Staerke 67:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xu X, Jin Z, Wang H, Chen X, Wang C, Yu S (2006) Effect of astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous on the pigmentation of goldfish, Carassius auratus. J World Aquac Soc 37:282–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yanar M, Erçen Z, Özlüer Hunt A, Büyükçapar HM (2008) The use of alfalfa, Medicago sativa as a natural carotenoid source in diets of goldfish, Carassius auratus. Aquaculture 284:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yi X, Xu W, Zhou H, Zhang Y, Luo Y, Zhang W, Mai K (2014) Effects of dietary astaxanthin and xanthophylls on the growth and skin pigmentation of large yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus. Aquaculture 433:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yin G, Cao L, Xu P, Jeney G, Nakao M (2011) Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 47:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhao X, Corrales M, Zhang C, Hu X, Ma Y, Tauscher B (2008) Composition and thermal stability of anthocyanins from chinese purple corn (Zea mays L.). J Agric Food Chem 56:10761–10766CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos-IPNYautepecMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma de TamaulipasVictoriaMexico
  3. 3.Programa de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de IngenieríaFundación Universitaria Agraria de ColombiaBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations