How changes in water quality under the influence of land-based trout farms shape chemism of the recipient streams—case study from Serbia
- 36 Downloads
A total of eight trout farms with different production capacities located in highland regions of Serbia were selected for testing of their influence on water parameters of the recipient streams at 46 sites seven times in the course of a year. All of the trout farms can be divided into two groups with respect to the relationship of the values of the parameters recorded at their outlets and downstream sites and those recorded at the control sites. The study showed that trout farms most often cause a statistically significant increase in the contribution of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM %), in the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, and PO43− and in the values of total phosphorous (Pt) and water temperature (tw). On the other hand, they cause a statistically significant decrease in the values of dissolved oxygen. In our study, the parameter defined as the ratio of the annual production of a trout farm to the minimal water discharge (Pr/Qmin) showed a high degree of correlation with the majority of analysed parameters, proven to be a good predictive model for testing the farm’s influence on the recipient stream.
KeywordsEutrophication Parameters Recipient streams Trout farms Water quality
total water hardness
the ionized fraction of ammonia
the un-ionized fraction of ammonia
the ratio of production of the trout farm in tonnes to water flow in the dry season
fish farm’s outlet
fine particulate organic matter
We would like to express our gratitude to fish farmers for their collaboration. Many thanks to Dalibor and Ivan Stojanović for their help with fieldwork.
The study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (TR 31075).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Axler RP, Tikkanen C, Henneck J, Schuldt J, McDonald M (1997) Characteristics of effluent and sludge from two commercial rainbow trout farms in Minnesota. Prog Fish Cult 59:161–172. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8640(1997)059<0161:ACOEAS>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bjelanović K, Živić I, Dulić Z, Živić M, Đorđević J, Marinković S, Marković Z (2013) Water quality assessment in the Raška river based on zoobenthos and zooplankton organisms as bioindicators. Paper presented at the VI International conference “Water & Fish”. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade. Belgrade, Serbia, 12–14 JuneGoogle Scholar
- Camargo JA, Gonzalo C (2007) Physicochemical and biological changes downstream from a trout farm outlet: comparing 1986 and 2006 sampling surveys. Limnetica 26:405–414Google Scholar
- European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European parliament and of the council establishing a framework for the community action in the field of water policy. Available via https://www.eea.europa.eu/policy-documents/directive-2000-60-ec-of. Accessed 18 Sept 2018
- FAO (2016) Global aquaculture for Oncorhynchus mykiss 1950–2014 (online query). In: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Available via http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/en. Accessed 18 Sept 2018
- Liao PB (1970) Pollution potential of salmonid fish hatcheries. Water Sew Works 117:291–297Google Scholar
- Marković Z, Stanković M, Dulić Z, Živić I, Rašković B, Spasić M, Poleksić V (2011) Aquaculture and fishery in Serbia: status and potentials. In: International Conference Aquaculture and Fishery, 5, Faculty of Agriculture – University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia), 1-3 Jun 2011Google Scholar
- Milošević D, Stojanović K, Djurdjević A, Marković Z, Stojković Piperac M, Živić M, Živić I (2018) The response of chironomid taxonomy-and functional trait-based metrics to fish farm effluent pollution in lotic systems. Environ Pollut 242:1058–1066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.100 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Newman M (1995) Quantitative methods in aquatic ecotoxicology. Advances in trace substances research. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Noroozrajabi A, Ghorbani R, Abdi O, Nabavi E (2013) The impact of rainbow trout farm effluents on water physicochemical properties of Daryasar stream. World J Fish Mar Sci 5:342–346. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjfms.2013.05.03.72175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pfaff JD (1993) Determination of inorganic anions by ion chromatography. EPA method 300.0, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Office of Research and Development, U.S. Cincinnati: Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
- Pulatsu S, Rad F, Köksal G, Aydın F, Benli AK, Topçu A (2004) The impact of rainbow trout farm effluents on water quality of Karasu stream, Turkey. Turk J Fish Aquat Sc 4:9–15Google Scholar
- Škunca-Milovanović S, Feliks R, Đurović B, Poček B (1990) Drinking water: standard methods for testing hygienic safety. The Federal Institute for Health Protection NIP “economic review” (In Serbian)Google Scholar
- Stojanović K (2017) Influence of trout farms on macrozoobentos communities with special emphasis on larvae of the genus Baetis (Ephemeroptera, Insecta). Dissertation, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology (in Serbian)Google Scholar
- Stojanović K, Živić M, Dulić Z, Marković Z, Krizmanić J, Milošević D, Miljanović B, Jovanović J, Vidaković D, Živić I (2017) Comparative study of the effects of a small-scale trout farm on the macrozoobenthos, potamoplankton, and epilithic diatom communities. Environ Monit Assess 189:403. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6114-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- TEPCD (2006) The European Parliament and the Council Directive 2006/44/EC of 6 September 2006, on the quality of fresh waters needing protection or improvement in order to support fish life. In: Official Journal of the European Union, L 264/20. Available via http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2006/44/oj. Accessed 18 Sept 2018
- US EPA (1979) EPA methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes. EPA-600/4–79-020, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
- Vidaković D, Šovran S., Lazović V., Stojanović K., Živić I, Krizmanić J (2016) The impact of trout farm effluent on diatoms richness in the Rasina river (Serbia). In: 5th Congress of ecologists of the Republic of Macedonia with International Participation, Ohrid, Macedonia, 19-22 October 2016Google Scholar
- Vranković J, Živić M, Radojević A, Perić-Mataruga V, Todorović D, Marković Z, Živić I (2018) Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater gammarid Gammarus dulensis exposed to trout farm outputs. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 163:84–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yalcuk A, Pakdil N, Kantürer O (2014) Investigation of the effects of fish farms in Bolu (Turkey) on aquatic pollution. Int J Agric Food Res 3(1):1–13Google Scholar