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Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1565–1577 | Cite as

A review of betanodavirus vaccination as preventive strategy to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in grouper

  • Hazreen-Nita M.
  • Azila A.
  • Mukai Y.
  • Firdaus-Nawi M.
  • Nur-Nazifah M.Email author
Article
  • 50 Downloads

Abstract

Viral disease outbreak is the most serious issue as it may cause severe losses to farmers as well as to economy in the marine industry worldwide. Among fish viral diseases, betanodavirus is a significant pathogen that causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and can result in mass mortalities to fish culture especially at larval stages. In Malaysia, betanodavirus had been isolated from groupers, seabass, red snappers, and golden pomfret. Recently, inconsistent seed supply is observed due to viral infection at larval stages which limits the growth of fish culture. Therefore, seeds of grouper are often imported from neighboring countries such as Indonesia by farmers. Strict importation regulations should be practiced as the importation of fish seeds may become a possible source of the virus entering the country. It is a challenge to track farmers who are affected by the disease in order to segregate or eliminate the VNN carrier spawners. This scenario had resulted in incomplete destruction of diseased fish population and leads to re-occurrence of the disease at the early stage of grouper. This situation warrants immediate attention to develop promising prevention strategies such as a new vaccine which is very important and could work effectively with better farm management approaches. This article discusses the occurrence of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in Malaysia and reviews possible preventive measures via vaccination to combat the disease.

Keywords

Grouper Betanodavirus Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) Vaccination Fish disease 

Abbreviations

VNN

Viral nervous necrosis

VER

Viral encephalopathy retinopathy

NNV

Nervous necrosis virus

dpi

Day post-injection

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

SJNNV

Striped jack nervous necrosis virus

TPNNV

Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus

BFNNV

Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus

RGNNV

Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus

TNV

Turbot betanodavirus strain

ORF

Open reading frames

cp

Capsid protein

RdRps

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

RT-PCR

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

RPS

Relative percentage survival

IM

Intramuscular

IHNV

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

VHS

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

CFPS

Cell-free protein synthesis

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kulliyyah of ScienceInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuantanMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Agro-Based IndustryUniversity Malaysia KelantanJeliMalaysia
  3. 3.National Fish Health Research CentrePenangMalaysia

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