Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1565–1577 | Cite as

A review of betanodavirus vaccination as preventive strategy to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in grouper

  • Hazreen-Nita M.
  • Azila A.
  • Mukai Y.
  • Firdaus-Nawi M.
  • Nur-Nazifah M.Email author


Viral disease outbreak is the most serious issue as it may cause severe losses to farmers as well as to economy in the marine industry worldwide. Among fish viral diseases, betanodavirus is a significant pathogen that causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and can result in mass mortalities to fish culture especially at larval stages. In Malaysia, betanodavirus had been isolated from groupers, seabass, red snappers, and golden pomfret. Recently, inconsistent seed supply is observed due to viral infection at larval stages which limits the growth of fish culture. Therefore, seeds of grouper are often imported from neighboring countries such as Indonesia by farmers. Strict importation regulations should be practiced as the importation of fish seeds may become a possible source of the virus entering the country. It is a challenge to track farmers who are affected by the disease in order to segregate or eliminate the VNN carrier spawners. This scenario had resulted in incomplete destruction of diseased fish population and leads to re-occurrence of the disease at the early stage of grouper. This situation warrants immediate attention to develop promising prevention strategies such as a new vaccine which is very important and could work effectively with better farm management approaches. This article discusses the occurrence of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in Malaysia and reviews possible preventive measures via vaccination to combat the disease.


Grouper Betanodavirus Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) Vaccination Fish disease 



Viral nervous necrosis


Viral encephalopathy retinopathy


Nervous necrosis virus


Day post-injection


Ribonucleic acid


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Striped jack nervous necrosis virus


Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus


Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus


Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus


Turbot betanodavirus strain


Open reading frames


Capsid protein


RNA-dependent RNA polymerase




Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays


Transmission electron microscopy


Relative percentage survival




Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus


Viral hemorrhagic septicemia


Cell-free protein synthesis


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kulliyyah of ScienceInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuantanMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Agro-Based IndustryUniversity Malaysia KelantanJeliMalaysia
  3. 3.National Fish Health Research CentrePenangMalaysia

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