Growth and immune gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei fed Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans supplemented diets and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus
- 76 Downloads
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is often related to infections and high mortality rates in shrimp farming. The use of probiotics is an alternative to the use of antibiotics in farming systems. Among the benefits, probiotics can boost the immune status of shrimp, making them more resistant to diseases. An experimental rearing was conducted for 60 days to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans on the growth and disease resistance in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Shrimp groups were designated according to the feed offered: commercial feed + B. subtilis (BS); commercial feed + B. circulans (BC); and feed without bacteria (control). The expressions of proPO, LGBP, and HEM genes were quantified by qPCR after 60 days of rearing and after 24 h of V. parahaemolyticus challenge. The growth and expression of immune genes were significantly higher in shrimp fed with BS and BC diets. Furthermore, animals fed with BC diet had a greater survival after the injection of V. parahaemolyticus. Bacillus spp. significantly increased in shrimp guts fed with BC and BS diets. Supplementation of L. vannamei diet with B. subtilis and B. circulans contributed to an increase in shrimp weight gain and enhancement of shrimp immune status.
KeywordsPenaeid shrimp Probiotic Disease resistance Hemolymph Immunity Sustainable aquaculture
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease
Analysis of variance
American Type Culture Collection
Lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein
Mannitol egg yolk polymyxin
Pattern recognition receptor
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Tryptone soy broth
This study was supported by the Pernambuco State Council of Science and Technology (FACEPE) and the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). R. Soares and S. Peixoto are fellow researchers of CNPq.
This study was funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (578141/2008-6).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.
- Abdollahi-Arpanahi D, Soltani E, Jafaryan H, Soltani M, Naderi-Samani M, Campa-Córdova AI (2018) Efficacy of two commercial and indigenous probiotics, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immuno-physiology and resistance response of juvenile white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 496:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Amend DF (1981) Potency testing of fish vacines. Dev Biol Stand 49:447–454Google Scholar
- Campa-Córdova AI, León-Gallo AF, Romero-Maldonado A, Ibarra-Serrano AC, Rosales-Mendoza S, Hirono I, Ângulo C (2017) Recombinant PirA-like toxin protects shrimp against challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the aetiological agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. J Fish Dis 40:1725–1729. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chai P-C, Song X-L, Chen G-F, Xu H, Huang J (2016) Dietary supplementation of probiotic Bacillus PC465 isolated from the gut of Fenneropenaeus chinensisimproves the health status and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 54:602–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coates CJ, Nairn J (2014) Diverse immune functions of hemocyanins. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 45(1):43–55Google Scholar
- Hamza F, Kumar AR, Zinjarde S (2015). Antibiofilm potential of a tropical marine Bacillus licheniformis isolate: role in disruption of aquaculture associated biofilms. Aquac Res 47:2661–2669Google Scholar
- Hao K, Liu JY, Ling F, Liua XL, Lua L, Xia L, Wang GX (2014) Effects of dietary administration of Shewanella haliotis D4, Bacillus cereus D7 and Aeromonas bivalvium D15, single or combined, on the growth, innate immunity and disease resistance of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 428-429:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Interaminense JA, Vogeley JL, Gouveia CK, Portela RWS, Oliveira JP, Andrade HA, Peixoto SM, Soares RB, Buarque DS, Bezerra RS (2018) In vitro and in vivo potential probiotic activity of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella algae for use in Litopenaeus vannamei rearing. Aquaculture 488:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jamali H, Imani A, Abdollahi D, Roozbehfar R, Isari A (2015) Use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) enrichment: effects on growth and survival of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, larvae. Probiotics & Antimicro Prot 7:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joshi J, Srisala J, Truong VH, Chend TI, Nuangsaenge B, Suthienkul O, Lo CF, Flegel TW, Sritunyalucksana K, Thitamadee S (2014) Variation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from a single Thai shrimp farm experiencing an outbreak of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Aquaculture 428–429:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pinoargote G, Ravishankar S (2018) Evaluation of the efficacy of probiotics in vitro against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in shrimp. J Prob Health 6:193Google Scholar
- Shi X-Z, Li X-C, Wang S, Zhao X-F, Wang J-X (2010) Transcriptome analysis of hemocytes and hepatopancreas in red swap crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, challenged with white spot syndrome virus. ISJ 7:119–131Google Scholar
- Soto-Rodríguez SA, Gomez-Gil B, Lozano-Olvera R, Betancourt-Lozano M, Morales-Covarrubias MS (2015) Field and experimental evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico. Appl Environ Microbiol 81:1689–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wongpanya R, Sengprasert P, Amparyup P, Tassanakajon A (2016) A novel Ctype lectin in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon functions as a pattern recognition receptor by binding and causing bacterial agglutination. Fish Shellfish Immunol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.11.042
- Zheng XT, Duan YF, Dong HB, Zhang JS (2017) Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 62:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zokaeifar H, Babaei N, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Balcazar JL (2014) Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish Shellfish Immunol 36:68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar