Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1451–1464 | Cite as

Growth and immune gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei fed Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans supplemented diets and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus

  • Joana Lyra VogeleyEmail author
  • Juliana Aguiar Interaminense
  • Diego Souza Buarque
  • Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral da Silva
  • Maria Raquel Moura Coimbra
  • Sílvio Maurano Peixoto
  • Roberta Borda Soares


Vibrio parahaemolyticus is often related to infections and high mortality rates in shrimp farming. The use of probiotics is an alternative to the use of antibiotics in farming systems. Among the benefits, probiotics can boost the immune status of shrimp, making them more resistant to diseases. An experimental rearing was conducted for 60 days to determine the effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans on the growth and disease resistance in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Shrimp groups were designated according to the feed offered: commercial feed + B. subtilis (BS); commercial feed + B. circulans (BC); and feed without bacteria (control). The expressions of proPO, LGBP, and HEM genes were quantified by qPCR after 60 days of rearing and after 24 h of V. parahaemolyticus challenge. The growth and expression of immune genes were significantly higher in shrimp fed with BS and BC diets. Furthermore, animals fed with BC diet had a greater survival after the injection of V. parahaemolyticus. Bacillus spp. significantly increased in shrimp guts fed with BC and BS diets. Supplementation of L. vannamei diet with B. subtilis and B. circulans contributed to an increase in shrimp weight gain and enhancement of shrimp immune status.


Penaeid shrimp Probiotic Disease resistance Hemolymph Immunity Sustainable aquaculture 





Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease


Analysis of variance


Antimicrobial proteins


American Type Culture Collection


Bacillus circulans


Bacillus subtilis


Colony-forming units


C-type lectin




Lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein




Mannitol egg yolk polymyxin


Negative control










Pattern recognition receptor


Quantitative polymerase chain reaction


Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


Sterile solution


Serine protease


Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose


Tryptone soy broth



This study was supported by the Pernambuco State Council of Science and Technology (FACEPE) and the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). R. Soares and S. Peixoto are fellow researchers of CNPq.

Funding information

This study was funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (578141/2008-6).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana Lyra Vogeley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juliana Aguiar Interaminense
    • 2
  • Diego Souza Buarque
    • 3
  • Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral da Silva
    • 4
  • Maria Raquel Moura Coimbra
    • 4
  • Sílvio Maurano Peixoto
    • 4
  • Roberta Borda Soares
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da ParaíbaCabedeloBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Bioquímica, Laboratório de EnzimologiaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  3. 3.Unidade Acadêmica de Serra TalhadaUniversidade Federal Rural de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura, Laboratório de Tecnologia em AquiculturaUniversidade Federal Rural de PernambucoRecifeBrazil

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