Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1383–1393 | Cite as

LpxD gene knockout elicits protection to Litopenaeus vannamei, white shrimp, against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

  • Ching-Yi Tsai
  • Harvey M. Santos
  • Shao-Yang Hu
  • Cheng Yu Sang
  • Ciara Alyssa S. Yanuaria
  • Ernest Nicolo G. Lola
  • Lemmuel L. Tayo
  • Karmella Marie A. Nitura
  • Chun Hung LiuEmail author
  • Kuo Pin ChuangEmail author


Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LpxD gene, a principal component of lipid A, which plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) responsible for the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacteria However, the function of lpxD in V. parahaemolyticus’ virulence has not been studied. In this study, lpxD gene knockout and its role in V. parahaemolyticus’ virulence in white shrimp were determined. The lpxD gene was knocked out by homologous recombination. Virulence and immunogenicity of the lpxD gene was disrupted and the pirA, the major virulence factor of AHPND, and AP1 gene were intact in white shrimp. White shrimp fed with normal diet with VP△lpxD displayed protection (reduced mortality rate from 66 to 27%) after challenge with V. parahaemolyticus. Our results indicated that knockout of the lpxD gene can cause attenuation of V. parahaemolyticus in white shrimp, and VP△lpxD could be used as a live attenuated oral vaccine against V. parahaemolyticus in white shrimp.


Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) LpxD Litopenaeus vannamei Oral vaccine Vibrio parahaemolyticus 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Research Center for Animal Biologics, from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 107-3017-F-020-001), Taiwan, R.O.C.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Program in Animal Vaccine Technology, International CollegeNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyPingtungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Biological Science and TechnologyNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyPingtungTaiwan
  3. 3.Research Center for Animal BiologicsNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyPingtungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of AquacultureNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyPingtungTaiwan
  5. 5.School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering and SciencesMapúa UniversityManilaPhilippines
  6. 6.Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, College of Veterinary MedicineNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyPingtungTaiwan

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