Genetic diversity in natural populations of Colossomamacropomum in the Brazilian Amazon region and in populations farmed in Northeast Brazil based on ISSR markers
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The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is a fish native to the Brazilian Amazon region and is an important species for the local aquaculture industry. In this study, genetic diversity of four tambaqui populations was assessed using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We tested 140 specimens, 64 of which were collected from two fish farms located in the State of the Bahia from BAHIA PESCA S/A ((BA); 33 from Cachoeira-BA and 31 from Dias d’Ávila-BA), 46 from the Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra Seca (DNOCS) in Pentecoste in the State of Ceará (CE), and 30 from a wild population in Juruá River in the State of Amazonas (AM). Thirteen markers were used to test genetic structure and diversity. A total of 184 amplifieds were produced, 157 of which were polymorphic. The ratios of polymorphic loci varied across the four populations, with lower polymorphism in the population from Cachoeira-BA (54.35%) and higher polymorphism in the population from the Juruá River (79.35%). The indices of heterozygosity (H) and Shannon (I) were similar among the farmed populations and were lower than those in the natural population. Lower values were observed in the population of Cachoeira-BA (H = 0.1726; I = 0.2606), and the highest values in the Juruá River populations (H = 0.2404; I = 0.3643). Analysis of molecular variance revealed the highest variation occurred within populations (61%) and the difference between populations was low (39%). We concluded that compared with the wild population, farmed populations had lower genetic diversity and that genetic information must be used in future management schemes to improve genetic population structure.
KeywordsGenetic conservation Genetic structuring Inbreeding Tambaqui, Amazon
We are grateful to Mr. Paulo Reis, Mr. Felipe Vieira, and Mrs. Socorro Chacon de Mesquita for their assistance with in collecting the specimens.
Studies on genetic variability in Brazilian species are important to support aquaculture in the country.
Studies related to genetic variability in wild tambaqui populations aid in the conservation of this species.
Genetic studies on tambaqui will help improvements its production in aquaculture.
Breeding schemes should be adopted to improve and conserve genetic diversity in farmed fish.
Financial support was granted by the Foundation for Research Support of the State of Bahia. We thank the Federal University of Bahia Recôncavo for permission to conduct this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author Claudivane Sá Teles Oliveira has received research grants from the FAPESB Company. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.
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