Immune response and resistance of Pacific white shrimp larvae administered probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic through the bio-encapsulation of Artemia sp.

  • Hamsah HamsahEmail author
  • Widanarni Widanarni
  • Alimuddin Alimuddin
  • Munti Yuhana
  • Muhammad Zairin Junior
  • Dendi Hidayatullah


This study aimed to evaluate the immune response and the disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae administered probiotic Pseudoalteromonas piscicida 1Ub 106 CFU mL−1, prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) 12 mg L−1, and synbiotic (probiotic P. piscicida 1Ub 106 CFU mL−1 and 12 mg L−1 prebiotic MOS) through the bio-encapsulation of Artemia sp. The bio-encapsulation was done in the rearing medium of Artemia sp. for 4 h. The bio-encapsulated Artemia sp. was administered from mysis three to post-larvae (PL) 12. After 13 days of the feeding trial, PL13 were challenged with Vibrio harveyi MR5339 RfR (3 × 107 CFU mL−1) through immersion. The challenge test was performed in the rearing medium (30 individuals L−1) for 5 days. Total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), and respiratory burst activity (RB) were measured before and 3 days after the challenge test, while the shrimp survival was observed until 5 days to evaluate the immune response. The expression of immune-related genes of the shrimp larvae including serine protein, peroxinectin, lipopolysaccharide, and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein was analyzed 24 h after the challenge test. The results demonstrated that THC, PO, RB, the expression of immune-related genes and the survivals of the shrimp larvae administered probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic were higher (p < 0.05) than that of control. The administration of probiotic P. piscisida 1Ub, prebiotic MOS, and synbiotic through the bio-encapsulation of Artemia sp. could effectively improve the immune response and the disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp larvae with the best result demonstrated by the synbiotic treatment.


Probiotic Prebiotic Symbiotic Artemia sp. Pacific white shrimp Vibrio harveyi 



We would like to thank the Aquatic Organism Health Laboratory in the Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University and Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Sukabumi, Indonesia, which have provided research facilities.

Authors’ contributions

Hamsah Hamsah, Widanarni Widanarni, Alimuddi Alimuddin, Munti Yuhana, Muhammad Zairin Junior compiled and designed the experiment. Dendi Hidayatullah analyzed the immune parameters. All authors contributed to the interpretation of results and made a significant contribution to the preparation of the manuscript. All authors have read, revised, and approved the final version of the manuscript.


This research was supported by the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education under Grant number 079/SP2H/LT/DRPM/II/2016.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The experimental procedures and treatment of Pacific white shrimp larvae in this study have been approved by the Indonesia local authorities (Animal Care and Use Committee, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamsah Hamsah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Widanarni Widanarni
    • 2
  • Alimuddin Alimuddin
    • 2
  • Munti Yuhana
    • 2
  • Muhammad Zairin Junior
    • 2
  • Dendi Hidayatullah
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of AgricultureMuhammadiyah University of MakassarMakassarIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine ScienceBogor Agricultural UniversityBogorIndonesia

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