Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 413–436 | Cite as

Effects of fish farming on macrophytes in temperate carp ponds

  • Kateřina FrancováEmail author
  • Kateřina Šumberová
  • Georg A. Janauer
  • Zdeněk Adámek


Anthropogenic impacts on carp pond environments have increased over the last 100–150 years in Central Europe. Present semi-intensive carp pond management combines natural food resources, supplementary feeding and additional intensification measures such as manuring, liming, and winter and summer drainage. Despite increased eutrophication and fish stock pressure, many carp ponds still serve as habitats for threatened biota, including macrophytes. Both the ecologically essential role of aquatic macrophytes and the impacts that reared fish may have on them have been repeatedly reported in the literature; however, information is scattered and there exists no multidisciplinary synthesis of knowledge of fish farming and plant interactions for European carp ponds. In this review, we show that macrophytes from different ecological groups have specific demands regarding optimal ecological conditions (e.g. pH and trophy level); hence, they can act as indicators of a water body’s ecological status. Nevertheless, the overall ecological ranges of many species (i.e. the limits enabling their survival) remain rather broad. Moreover, interactions between the different elements within carp pond ecosystems are complex and change rapidly, facilitating the co-existence of macrophytes with contradictory ecological demands. As the literature suggests, carp ponds may play a role in biodiversity protection that is just as important (or even more so) than that of natural wetlands. Sustainable, environmentally friendly carp pond management is undoubtedly the best means of preserving the unique natural and cultural value of these aquatic ecosystems for the future.


Aquatic plants Biodiversity Fishponds Central Europe Pond management 



We would like to thank J. Vrba and J. Regenda for their helpful suggestions on an earlier version of the manuscript, fish farmers from companies across the Czech Republic, who shared their experience with us and gave us a lot of inspiration for our research, two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, and P. Franta for drawing Fig. 1.

Funding information

Elaboration of this paper was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the projects CENAKVA (No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), CENAKVA II (No. LO1205 under the NPU I program) and FISHPOND2014 (No. LD14045 under the COST CZ program); the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice (No. 060/2016/Z), the Czech Science Foundation (No. 17-09310S and 14-36079G – Centre of Excellence PLADIAS) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (RVO 67985939).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kateřina Francová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kateřina Šumberová
    • 2
  • Georg A. Janauer
    • 3
  • Zdeněk Adámek
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Aquaculture and Protection of WatersUniversity of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, FFPW, CENAKVAČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Vegetation EcologyInstitute of Botany of the Czech Academy of SciencesBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Limnology and Bio-OceanographyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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