Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 303–312 | Cite as

Bacterial complexes of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas stutzeri alter the microbial composition in grass carp water

  • Xiaoping Zhang
  • Yang Wang
  • Zheke Zhong
  • Qingjun Shao
  • Yibing Wang
  • Weifen Li


The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of bacterial complexes (BC, a combination of Bacillus subtilis SC02 and Pseudomonas stutzeri F1M) on nitrogen removal and microbial composition in grass carp culture water. The results of the study showed that the addition of BC could significantly decrease the level of harmful nitrogen compounds and improve the water quality in grass carp culture water over an extended period of time. The 454-pyrosequencing results showed that BC could significantly increase (p < 0.05) the abundance of the genera Hydrogenophaga and Cloacibacterium on the 6th day and 15th day, respectively. LefSe analysis (LDA Score [log10] > 4) indicated that BC enriched in the taxa Firmicutes, Hydrogenophaga, and Pseudomonas, while the CK was enriched in the genus Rhodobacter on the 6th day. On the 15th day, the CK microbiome was characterized by a preponderance of Betaproteobacteria in the water, but no biomarker was identified in the BC group; therefore, the addition of a combination of Bacillus subtilis SC02 and Pseudomonas stutzeri F1M can improve water quality and change the microbiota in grass carp water.


Aquaculture water Nitrogen removal Microbial diversity Grass carp 


Funding information

This study was supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Research (No. 2015C02054) and National Basic Research Program, P.R. China (973 Program) (No. 2009CB118705).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

This study involving the use of animals was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Animal Ethics Committee of the Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University.

Supplementary material

10499_2018_325_MOESM1_ESM.doc (4.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 4722 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoping Zhang
    • 1
  • Yang Wang
    • 2
  • Zheke Zhong
    • 1
  • Qingjun Shao
    • 2
  • Yibing Wang
    • 2
  • Weifen Li
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.China National Bamboo Research Center, Key Laboratory of Resources and Utilization of Bamboo of State Forestry AdministrationHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Animal SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute of Feed Sciences, College of Animal SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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