Advertisement

Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 279–286 | Cite as

Betanodavirus-associated mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, Bloch) cultured in indoor tanks and sea cages

  • S. R. Krupesha SharmaEmail author
  • M. A. Pradeep
  • P. N. Dube
  • T. V. Arun Kumar
  • Raj Kumar
  • T. Raja Swaminathan
Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

Sea cage farming of Asian seabass is a prospective aquaculture activity in India. Reports from India on betanodavirus-induced mortality in marine fish culture are not many. An outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype of betanodavirus in Asian seabass juveniles reared in indoor tanks and sea cages is described in the present paper. Mortality was less severe in cages when compared to tanks. Sequence analysis of the coat protein gene indicated that the virus belonged to RGNNV genotype but found to be distinct from other reported RGNNV isolates. Virus was able to induce cytopathic effects in fish cell lines. Light microscopic features of the disease are also described.

Keywords

Asian seabass Betanodavirus RT-PCR Sequencing Cell culture Cage culture 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. A. Gopalakrishnan, Director, and Dr. P. Vijayagopal, Head of the Marine Biotechnology Division, CMFRI, for the facilities provided.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

References

  1. Azad IS, Shekhar MS, Thirunavukkarasu AR, Poornima M, Kailasam M, Rajan JJS, Ali SA, Abraham M, Ravichandran P (2005) Nodavirus infection causes mortalities in hatchery produced larvae of Lates calcarifer first report from India. Dis Aquat Org 63:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banerjee D, Hamod MA, Suresh T, Karunasagar I (2014) Isolation and characterization of a nodavirus associated with mass mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from the west coast of India. Virus Dis 25:425–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Costa JZ, Thompson KD (2016) Understanding the interaction between betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy. Fish Shellfish Immunol 53:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Downie T (1990) Histopathology. Theory and practice of histological techniques. In: Bancroft JD, Stevens A (Eds.)17:386.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2559.1990.tb00755.x
  5. Johansen R, Grove S, Svendsen AK, Modahl I, Dannevig B (2004) A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy. J Fish Dis 27:327–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. John KR, George MR, Jayatha B et al (2014) Isolation and characterization of Indian betanodavirus strain from infected farm-reared Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) juveniles. Aquac Res 45:1481–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Le Breton A, Grisez L, Sweetman J et al (1997) Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) associated with mass mortalities in caged-reared sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. J Fish Dis 20:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Munday BL, Kwangand J, Moody N (2002) Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review. J Fish Dis 25:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Murray AG (2009) Using simple models to review the application and implications of different approaches used to simulate transmission of pathogens among aquatic animals. Prev Vet Med 88:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Murray AG, Peeler E (2005) A frame work for understanding the potential for emerging diseases in aquaculture. Prev Vet Med 67:223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nishizawa T, Mori K-I, Furuhashi M, Nakai T, Furusawa I, Muroga K (1995) Comparison of the coat protein genes of five fish nodaviruses, the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in marine fish. J Gen Virol 76:1563–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Panzarin V, Fusaro A, Monne I, Cappellozza E, Patarnello P, Bovo G, Capua I, Holmes EC, Cattoli G (2012) Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of betanodavirus in southern Europe. Infect Genet Evol 12:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Philipose KK, Sharma SRK, Loka J et al (2013) Culture of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, Bloch) in open sea floating net cages off Karwar, South India. Ind J Fish 60:67–70Google Scholar
  14. Pirarat N, Katagiri T, Maita M, Nakai T, Endo M (2009) Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared juvenile thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer). Aquaculture 288:349–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ransangan J, Manin BO (2010) Mass mortality of hatchery-produced larvae of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), associated with viral nervous necrosis in Sabah, Malaysia. Vet Microbiol 45:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ransangan J, Manin BO, Abdullah A, Roli Z, Sharudin EF (2011) Betanodavirus infection in golden pompano, Trachinotus blochii, fingerlings cultured in deep-sea cage culture facility in Langkawi, Malaysia. Aquaculture 315:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shetty M, Maiti B, Santhosh KS et al (2012) Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures. Indian J Virol 23:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Swaminathan TR, Basheer VS, Gopalakrishnan A, Rathore G, Chaudhary DK, Kumar R, Jena JK (2013) Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India. Acta Trop 128:536–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Toffan A, Panzarin V, Toson M et al (2016) Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax. Dis Aquat Org 11:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Valero Y, Arizcun M, Esteban MA, Bandín I, Olveira JG, Patel S, Cuesta A, Chaves-Pozo E (2015) Nodavirus colonizes and replicates in the testis of gilthead seabream and European sea bass modulating its immune and reproductive functions. PLoS One 10(2015):e0145131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yuasa K, Koesharyani I, Mahardika K (2007) Effect of high water temperature on betanodavirus infection of fingerling humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Fish Pathol 42:219–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Marine Fisheries Research InstituteKochiIndia
  2. 2.Research Centre of CMFRIKarwarIndia
  3. 3.PMFGR Centre of National Bureau of Fish Genetic ResourcesKochiIndia

Personalised recommendations