Advertisement

Aquatic Geochemistry

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 307–322 | Cite as

Potential Influence of Ocean Acidification on Deep-Sea Fe–Mn Nodules and Pelagic Clays: An Improved Assessment by Using Artificial Seawater

  • Quan Wang
  • Hodaka Kawahata
  • Kyoko Yamaoka
  • Atsushi Suzuki
Original Article

Abstract

In order to assess the potential risk of metal release from deep-sea sediments in response to pH decrease in seawater, the mobility of elements from ferromanganese (Fe–Mn) nodules and pelagic clays was examined. Two geochemical reference samples (JMn-1 and JMS-2) were reacted with the pH-controlled artificial seawater (ASW) using a CO2-induced pH regulation system. Our experiments demonstrated that deep-sea sediments have weak buffer capacities by acid–base dissociation of surface hydroxyl groups on metal oxides/oxyhydroxides and silicate minerals. Element concentrations in the ASW were mainly controlled by elemental speciation in the solid phase and sorption–desorption reaction between the charged solid surface and ion species in the ASW. These results indicated that the release of heavy metals such as Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd should be taken into consideration when assessing the influence of ocean acidification on deep-sea environment.

Keywords

Fe–Mn nodule pH decrease Artificial seawater Element behavior Deep-sea mining 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the anonymous reviewers for constructive and valuable comments and the editor for the editorial handling of the manuscript. We thank Toshihiro Yoshimura of JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) and Yuki Ota of the Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo for their assistance on ICP-MS measurement. This research was supported by Grants-in-Aids from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to H.K. (Nos. 19340146, 22224009 and 15H02139).

Author Contributions Statement

All authors contributed to the design of the experimental strategy. Q.W. and A.S. conducted the experiment and ICP-MS measurements. Q.W. completed the data processing and wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to revise the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Competing financial interests: The authors declare no competing financial interests.

References

  1. Awaji S (2009) Elucidation of the distribution and enrichment mechanism of rare metals in deep-sea mineral resources using a simple method for precise simultaneous determination of 61 elements by ICP-MS. Dissertation, the University of TokyoGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayon G, German CR, Boella RM, Milton JA, Taylor RN, Nesbitt RW (2002) An improved method for extracting marine sediment fractions and its application to Sr and Nd isotopic analysis. Chem Geol 187:179–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boehm HP (1971) Acidic and basic properties of hydroxylated metal oxide surfaces. Discuss Faraday Soc 52:264–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Byrne RH (2002) Inorganic speciation of dissolved elements in seawater: the influence of pH on concentration ratios. Geochem Trans 2:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2003) Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425:365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2005) Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean. J Geophys Res 110:C09S04CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charewicz WA, Zhu C, Chmielewski T (2001) The leaching behavior of ocean polymetallic nodules in chloride solutions. Physicochem Probl Miner Process 35:55–66Google Scholar
  8. De Orte MR, Lombardi AT, Sarmiento AM, Basallote MD, Rodriguez-Romero A, Riba I, Del Valls A (2014) Metal mobility and toxicity to microalgae associated with acidification of sediments: CO2 and acid comparison. Mar Environ Res 96:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dickson AG (1990) Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid in synthetic seawater from 273.15 to 318.15 K. Deep Sea Res 37:755–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dickson AG, Sabine CL, Christian JR (eds) (2007) Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements, vol 3. PICES Special Publication, Sidney, p 191Google Scholar
  11. Endrizzi F, Rao LF (2014) Chemical speciation of uranium(VI) in marine environments: complexation of calcium and magnesium ions with [(UO2)(CO3)3]4− and the effect on the extraction of uranium from seawater. Chemistry 20:14499–14506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. European Communities (EC) (1998) Council directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Eur Commun L330:0032–0054. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-drink/legislation_en.html. Accessed 24 July 2018
  13. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Lee K, Berelson W, Kleypas J, Fabry VJ, Millero FJ (2004) Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305:362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Feely RA, Orr J, Fabry VJ, Kleypas JA, Sabine CL, Langdon C (2013) Present and future changes in seawater chemistry due to ocean acidification. In: Mcpherson BJ, Sundquist ET (eds) Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 175–188Google Scholar
  15. Glasby GP (1991) Mineralogy, geochemistry, and origin of Pacific red clays: a review. NZ J Geol Geophys 34:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glasby GP (2006) Manganese: predominant role of nodules and crusts. In: Schulz H, Zabel M (eds) Marine geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, pp 371–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grotti M, Frachea R (2007) Direct determination of arsenic in sea-water by reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom 22:1481–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gupta LP, Kawahata H, Takeuchi M, Ohta H, Ono Y (2005) Temperature and pH dependence of some metals leaching from fly ash of municipal solid waste. Resour Geol 55:357–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hauton C et al (2017) Identifying toxic impacts of metals potentially released during deep-sea mining—a synthesis of the challenges to quantifying risk. Front Mar Sci 4:368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hein JR, Mizell K, Koschinsky A, Conrad TA (2013) Deep-ocean mineral deposits as a source of critical metals for high-and green-technology applications: comparison with land-based resources. Ore Geol Rev 51:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ilyina T, Zeebe RE (2012) Detection and projection of carbonate dissolution in the water column and deep-sea sediments due to ocean acidification. Geophys Res Lett 39:L06606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. International Seabed Authority (2018) Deep seabed minerals contractors. https://www.isa.org.jm/deep-seabed-minerals-contractors. Accessed 24 July 2018
  23. Kanungo SB, Das RP (1988) Extraction of metals from manganese nodules of the Indian Ocean by leaching in aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide. Hydrometallurgy 20:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kester DR, Duedall IW, Connors DN, Pytkowicz RM (1967) Preparation of artificial seawater. Limnol Oceanogr 12:176–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim HJ, Kim D, Hyeong K, Hwang J, Yoo CM, Ham DJ, Seo I (2013) Evaluation of resuspended sediments to sinking particles by benthic disturbance in the Clarion-Clipperton nodule fields. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 33:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koschinsky A, Halbach P (1995) Sequential leaching of marine ferromanganese precipitates: genetic implications. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:5113–5132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koschinsky A, Hein JR (2003) Uptake of elements from seawater by ferromanganese crusts: solid-phase associations and seawater speciation. Mar Geol 198:331–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leonhard P, Pepelnik R, Prange A, Yamadab N, Yamada T (2002) Analysis of diluted sea-water at the ng L−1 level using an ICP-MS with an octopole reaction cell. J Anal At Spectrom 17:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li YH (1991) Distribution patterns of the elements in the ocean: a synthesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:3223–3240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCurdy E, Woods G (2004) The application of collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to multi-element analysis in variable sample matrices, using He as a non-reactive cell gas. J Anal At Spectrom 19:607–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Millero FJ (2013) Chemical oceanography. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Millero FJ, Woosley R, Ditrolio B, Waters J (2009) Effect of ocean acidification on the speciation of metals in seawater. Oceanography 22:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Oebius HU, Becker HJ, Rolinski S, Jankowski JA (2001) Parametrization and evaluation of marine environmental impacts produced by deep-sea manganese nodule mining. Deep Sea Res Part II 48:3453–3467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Parida K, Satapathy PK, Das N (1996) Studies on Indian ocean manganese nodules: IV. Adsorption of some bivalent heavy metal ions onto ferromanganese nodules. J Colloid Interface Sci 181:456–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Park K (1966) Deep-sea pH. Science 154:1540–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Raven J et al (2005) Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Roy RN et al (1993) The dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater at salinities 5–45 and temperatures 0–45°C. Mar Chem 44:249–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schindler PW (1975) Removal of trace metals from the oceans: a zero order model. Thalass Jugosl 11:101–111Google Scholar
  39. Senanayake G (2011) Acid leaching of metals from deep-sea manganese nodules—a critical review of fundamentals and applications. Miner Eng 24:1379–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharma R (2015) Environmental issues of deep-sea mining. Procedia Earth Planet Sci 11:204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Stumm W, Huang CP, Jenkins SR (1970) Specific chemical interaction affecting stability of dispersed systems. Croat Chem Acta 42:223–245Google Scholar
  43. Terashima S, Usui A, Imai N (1995) Two new GSJ geochemical reference samples: syenite Jsy-1 and manganese nodule JMn-1. Geostand Newslett 19:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Terashima S, Imai N, Taniguchi M, Okai T, Nishimura A (2002) The preparation and preliminary characterisation of four New Geological Survey of Japan geochemical reference materials: soils, JSO-1 and JSO-2; and marine sediments, JMS-1 and JMS-2. Geostand Newslett 26:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thiel H (2001) Evaluation of the environmental consequences of polymetallic nodule mining based on the results of the TUSCH Research Association. Deep Sea Res Part II 48:3433–3452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2012) Edition of the drinking water standards and health advisories. Washington, DC. https://www.epa.gov/dwstandardsregulations. Accessed 24 July 2018
  48. Verlaan PA, Cronan DS, Morgan CL (2004) A comparative analysis of compositional variations in and between marine ferromanganese nodules and crusts in the South Pacific and their environmental controls. Prog Oceanogr 63:125–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang Q, Kawahata H, Manaka T, Yamaoka K, Suzuki A (2017) Potential influence of ocean acidification on deep-sea Fe–Mn nodules: results from leaching experiments. Aquat Geochem 23:233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th edn. World Health Organization Press. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2011/dwq_guidelines/en/. Accessed 24 July 2018
  51. Zaman MI, Mustafa S, Khan S, Xing B (2009) Effect of phosphate complexation on Cd2+ sorption by manganese dioxide (β-MnO2). J Colloid Interface Sci 330:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary ScienceThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  2. 2.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoKashiwaJapan
  3. 3.Geological Survey of JapanNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations