Mixing Characteristics of Non-Newtonian Impinging Jets at Elevated Pressures
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The effect of chamber pressure on the mixing characteristics of like-doublet impinging liquid jets is experimentally and numerically investigated for non-gelled and gelled hypergolic propellant simulants. The experiment uses planar laser induced fluorescence technique to investigate the mixing efficiencies of impinging liquid streams. It is found that mixing is enhanced for both gelled and non-gelled fluids as the pressure increases. However, gelled simulants generally result in poorer mixing as compared to their non-gelled counterparts, suggesting that pre-impingement conditions are important factors that determine mixing efficiency. To verify this hypothesis, high-fidelity direct numerical simulations, based on a state-of-the-art volume-of-fluid (VOF) method are conducted at elevated pressures for the gelled simulant, treated as a Herschel-Bulkley non-Newtonian fluid. It is found that the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) changes significantly, and approaches the SMD of non-gelled impinging jets if the incoming jets are either perturbed by a sinusoidal disturbance or a fully developed turbulent flow profile is introduced, explaining the experimental observations and confirming the hypothesis.
KeywordsNon-Newtonian fluids Impinging jets Mixing efficiency Volume of fluid
The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr. Ralph Anthenien, the contract monitor for supporting this research effort. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Stéphane Popinet for allowing them to use his VOF and AMR algorithms.
This work was supported by the United States Army Research Office under the Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI), contract number W911NF-08-1-0124.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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