Field-evolved resistance and cross-resistance of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to bifenazate, cyenopyrafen and SYP-9625
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The acaricide bifenazate acts as complex III inhibitor whereas cyenopyrafen and SYP-9625 act as complex II inhibitors. All these acaricides are commonly used to control two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch. We examined field-evolved and laboratory-selected resistance of TSSM to these three acaricides and determined cross-resistance among them. Six field populations of TSSM showed low levels of resistance to bifenazate with resistance ratios ranging from 2.20 to 10.65 compared to a susceptible strain. SYP-9625, structurally similar to cyenopyrafen, showed slightly higher activity to TSSMs but significant cross-resistance in both field populations and a laboratory-selected strain by SYP-9625. However, low levels of resistance to these two chemicals were found in field populations even when used for short time periods. Cross-resistance was not found between bifenazate and Complex II inhibitors, cyenopyrafen and SYP-9625, in both field populations and the laboratory-selected strain. Field-evolved resistance of TSSM to the tested acaricides is still low and should be delayed by the implementation of resistance management practices. Cross-resistance between cyenopyrafen and SYP-9625 is obvious, so they should not be used together in resistance management strategies based on mode of action rotation.
KeywordsTetranychus urticae Field population Cross-resistance Bioassay
We thank Prof. Shao-Li Wang for providing the susceptible strain of the TSSM, Ting-Ting Cao, Ming-Liang Li for assistance of field collection. Funding for this study was provided jointly by the Promotion and Innovation of Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (KJCX20180113), the Innovative Team of Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences (JNKYT201605), Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (D16110500550000) and Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Pest Management on Northern Fruits (BZ0432).
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