Phylogenetic relationships and effectiveness of four Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains for control of Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae)
- 49 Downloads
Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important vector tick that is widely distributed around the world. In many regions, this tick acts as vector of a wide range of pathogens to humans and animals, and its control is mainly based on the use of chemical pesticides. However, the occurrence of some adverse effects, such as tick resistance to pesticides and food and environmental contamination, are driving the need to develop more effective and environmentally sound approaches to control and prevent ticks. As an alternative control strategy, entomopathogenic fungi have been extensively used for the control of pests and cause high mortality in various ticks. In this study, we identified four isolates of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato from insects and investigated their pathogenicity against different developmental stages of H. longicornis (eggs, unfed larvae, unfed nymphs and engorged females). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the four isolates of B. bassiana clustered into two clades. Four isolates showed different acaricidal qualities: the isolate from Cerambycidae (EF3) exhibited the highest pathogenicity to all developmental tick stages tested. High doses (1 × 107 conidia/ml) of the clade I fungi collected from Cryptotympana atrata fabricus (Cicadidae) (EF1), Cimicidae (EF2), and Boettcherisca peregrine (Sarcophagidae) (EF4) also showed virulence against H. longicornis, with high doses of the fungi application causing higher mortality than control group. Altogether, this study demonstrated that all four isolates of B. bassiana showed high virulence toward different developmental stages of H. longicornis, and therefore, they can be of potential use as biological control agents of ticks.
KeywordsTicks Entomopathogenic fungi Biological control Tick-borne diseases
This research was supported by development plan project of Shandong province science and technology (No. 2017GSF221017) and National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (No. 81871686).
- Alonso-Díaz MA, García L, Galindo-Velasco E, Lezama-Gutierrez R, Angel-Sahagún CA, Rodríguez-Vivas RI, Fragoso-Sánchez H (2007) Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hyphomycetes) for the control of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) on naturally infested cattle in the Mexican tropics. Vet Parasitol 147:336–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Humbert R (1996) Fungi identification. In Manual of techniques in insect pathology USDA-ARS Plant Protection Research. Ithaca, New York, pp 153–185Google Scholar
- Lu BL, Wu HY (2003) Classification and Identification of important medical insects of China. Henan Science and technology Publishing House, Henan, pp. 661–665 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Ren Z, Wang D, Ma A, Hwang J, Bennett A, Sturrock HJ, Fan J, Zhang W, Yang D, Feng X, Xia Z, Zhou XN, Wang J (2016) Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: challenges for malaria elimination. Sci Rep 6:20604. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20604 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sousa LAD, Pires HB, Soares SF, Ferri PH, Ribas P, Lima EM, Furlong J, Bittencourt VREP, Perinotto WM, Borges LM (2011) Potential synergistic effect of Melia azedarach fruit extract and Beauveria bassiana in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in cattle infestations. Vet Parasitol 175:320–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sun M, Ren Q, Guan G, Liu Z, Ma M, Gou H, Chen Z, Li Y, Liu A, Niu Q, Yang J, Yin H, Luo J (2011) Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces lilacinus to the engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol 180:389–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi T, Maeda K, Suzuki T, Ishido A, Shigeoka T, Tominaga T, Kamei T, Honda M, Ninomiya D, Sakai T, Senba T, Kaneyuki S, Sakaguchi S, Satoh A, Hosokawa T, Kawabe Y, Kurihara S, Izumikawa K, Kohno S, Azuma T, Suemori K, Yasukawa M, Mizutani T, Omatsu T, Katayama Y, Miyahara M, Ijuin M, Doi K, Okuda M, Umeki K, Saito T, Fukushima K, Nakajima K, Yoshikawa T, Tani H, Fukushi S, Fukuma A, Ogata M, Shimojima M, Nakajima N, Nagata N, Katano H, Fukumoto H, Sato Y, Hasegawa H, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Kurane I, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2014) The first identification and retrospective study of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan. J Infect Dis 209:816–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vayssier-Taussat M, Kazimirova M, Hubalek Z, Hornok S, Farkas R, Cosson JF, Bonnet S, Vourch G, Gasqui P, Mihalca AD, Plantard O, Silaghi C, Cutler S, Rizzoli A (2015) Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the “one pathogen-one disease” vision to the pathobiome paradigm. Future Microbiol 10:2033–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Webster A, Reck J, Santi L, Souza UA, Dall’Agnol B, Klafke GM, Beys-da-Silva WO, Martins JR, Schran A (2015) Integrated control of an acaricide-resistant strain of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus by applying Metarhizium anisopliae associated with cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos under field conditions. Vet Parasitol 207:302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang YP, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan FX, Wang XJ, Kan B, Wang SW, Wan KL, Jing HQ, Lu JX, Yin WW, Zhou H, Guan XH, Liu JF, Bi ZQ, Liu GH, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song JD, He JR, Wan T, Zhang JS, Fu XP, Sun LN, Dong XP, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li DX (2011) Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364:1523–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar