Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 399–411 | Cite as

Acaricidal effect of Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae) essential oil on unengorged larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae)

  • Catalina Rey-ValeirónEmail author
  • Keila Pérez
  • Lucía Guzmán
  • Javier López-Vargas
  • Eduardo Valarezo


The current concern about resistance to acaricides and the impact of toxic waste on the environment has led to the search of vegetal alternatives in the control of the brown tick of the dog Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) derivatives have been associated with insecticidal, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities and essential oil showed to be lethal to R. microplus larvae. This study aimed at evaluating the acaricidal effect of essential oil of S. molle (EOSm) on engorged adult females and larval stages of R. sanguineus. One-hundred engorged females were obtained from the ears, interdigital spaces, neck, groin and base of the tail of two cross-bred dogs. The larvae package test was accomplished with 21-day-old larvae and five concentrations (v/v) of EOSm (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2%) in an anionic detergent, a synthetic acaricide (cypermethrin) and detergent and deionized water as controls. The immersion adult test was carried out with nine concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 20%) of the EOSm. At the concentration of 2%, EOSm caused 99.3% of larval mortality. In adults, inhibition of oviposition, egg hatching (EH) and reproductive efficiency (RE) values were dose-dependent from 4 to 20% EOSm; the lowest values of EH (29.62) and RE (22.61) were achieved with 20% EOSm. Strong and negative correlations were found between concentration of EOSm and EH (r = − 0.948) and between concentration of EOSm and RE (r = − 0.985). This study demonstrated for the first time the acaricidal effect of EOSm on larvae and reproductive parameters of engorged adult females of R. sanguineus.


Essential oil Schinus molle Biological control Rhipicephalus sanguineus 



To Lic. Víctor García and DVM Yoselín Dietes, Universidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de Miranda, Venezuela, for their invaluable technical assistance. To Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT), República del Ecuador, for making possible the scientific cooperation between Catalina Rey-Valeirón, Lucía Guzmán y Eduardo Valarezo through Proyecto Prometeo.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The ticks were collected from dogs under qualified veterinary supervision without causing pain or distress, as the Code of Bioethics and Biosecurity by Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Venezuela. Acquiescence of owner for tick sampling was previously asked. Participation was voluntary.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Investigación en Parasitología VeterinariaUniversidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de MirandaIntercomunal Coro-La VelaVenezuela
  2. 2.Postgrado en Sanidad AnimalUniversidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de MirandaCoroVenezuela
  3. 3.Misión NevadoMéridaVenezuela
  4. 4.Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, sección Biotecnología y ProducciónUniversidad Técnica Particular de LojaLojaEcuador
  5. 5.Departamento de QuímicaUniversidad Técnica Particular de LojaLojaEcuador

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