Acaricidal effect of Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae) essential oil on unengorged larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae)
The current concern about resistance to acaricides and the impact of toxic waste on the environment has led to the search of vegetal alternatives in the control of the brown tick of the dog Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) derivatives have been associated with insecticidal, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities and essential oil showed to be lethal to R. microplus larvae. This study aimed at evaluating the acaricidal effect of essential oil of S. molle (EOSm) on engorged adult females and larval stages of R. sanguineus. One-hundred engorged females were obtained from the ears, interdigital spaces, neck, groin and base of the tail of two cross-bred dogs. The larvae package test was accomplished with 21-day-old larvae and five concentrations (v/v) of EOSm (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2%) in an anionic detergent, a synthetic acaricide (cypermethrin) and detergent and deionized water as controls. The immersion adult test was carried out with nine concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 20%) of the EOSm. At the concentration of 2%, EOSm caused 99.3% of larval mortality. In adults, inhibition of oviposition, egg hatching (EH) and reproductive efficiency (RE) values were dose-dependent from 4 to 20% EOSm; the lowest values of EH (29.62) and RE (22.61) were achieved with 20% EOSm. Strong and negative correlations were found between concentration of EOSm and EH (r = − 0.948) and between concentration of EOSm and RE (r = − 0.985). This study demonstrated for the first time the acaricidal effect of EOSm on larvae and reproductive parameters of engorged adult females of R. sanguineus.
KeywordsEssential oil Schinus molle Biological control Rhipicephalus sanguineus
To Lic. Víctor García and DVM Yoselín Dietes, Universidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de Miranda, Venezuela, for their invaluable technical assistance. To Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT), República del Ecuador, for making possible the scientific cooperation between Catalina Rey-Valeirón, Lucía Guzmán y Eduardo Valarezo through Proyecto Prometeo.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The ticks were collected from dogs under qualified veterinary supervision without causing pain or distress, as the Code of Bioethics and Biosecurity by Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Venezuela. Acquiescence of owner for tick sampling was previously asked. Participation was voluntary.
- Adams RP (2007) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 4th edn. Allured, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
- Andreotti R, Garcia MV, Cunha RC, Barros J (2013) Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial. Vet Parasitol 197:341–345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.04.045 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Batista LCDSO, Cid Y, De Almeida A, Prudêncio E, Riger C, De Souza M, Coumendouros K, Chaves D (2016) In vitro efficacy of essential oils and extracts of Schinus molle L. against Ctenocephalides felis felis. Parasitology 143:627–638. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182016000081 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bhattacharya S (2015) Cultivation of essential oils. In: Preedy V (ed) Essential oils in food preservation, flavor and safety. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 19–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-416641-7.00003-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bissinger BW, Schmidt JP, Owens JJ, Mitchell SM, Kennedy MK (2014) Activity of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 against the ticks Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 62:105–113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-013-9719-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Castelblanco L, Sanabria O, Cruz A, Rodríguez C (2013) Preliminary report of the ixodicidal effect of some plant extracts on ticks Boophilus microplus. Rev Cub Plantas Med 18:118–130Google Scholar
- Da Silva EMG, Rodrigues VS, Jorge JO, Osava CF, Szabó MPJ, Garcia MV, Andreotti R (2016) Efficacy of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on infested dogs and in vitro. Exp Appl Acarol 70:483–489. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-016-0092-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- dos Santos A, Alves MS, da Silva LCP, Patrocínio DS, Sanches MN, Chaves DSA, Souza MAA (2015) Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus erebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit. Rev Bras Farmacogn 25:356–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2004) Resistance management and integrated parasites control in ruminants. Guidelines, module 1: ticks acaricide resistance, diagnosis, management and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome, pp 25–77Google Scholar
- Gomes GA, Monteiro CMO, Julião LS, Maturano R, Senra TOS, Zeringóta V, de Carvalho MG (2014) Acaricidal activity of essential oil from Lippia sidoides on unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Parasitol 137:41–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2013.12.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kačániová M, Vukovič N, Horská E, Salamon I, Bobková A, Hleba L, Fiskelová M, Vatľák A, Petrová J, Bobko M (2014) Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin. J Environ Sci Health B 49:505–512. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2014.896673 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kordali S, Cakir A, Ozer H, Cakmakci R, Kesdek M, Mete E (2008) Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresour Technol 99:8788–8795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.04.048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Manzoor F, Fazal S, Munir N, Naz S, Khalid A (2013) Acaricidal activity of essential oils from tulsi (Ocimum basilicum), bach (Acorus calamus), and mint (Mentha arvensis) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Asian J Chem 25:6787–6790. https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2013.14680 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- NIST 05 Mass Spectral Library (NIST/EPA/NIH) (2005) National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USAGoogle Scholar
- Politi FAS, Figueira GM, Araújo AM, Sampieri BR, Mathias MIC, Szabó MPJ, Bechara GH, dos Santos LC, Vilegas W, Pietro RCLR (2012) Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). Parasit Vectors 5:295–306. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-295 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Prado-Rebolledo O, Molina-Ochoa J, Lezama-Gutiérrez R, García-Márquez L, Minchaca-Llerenas Y, Morales-Barrera E et al (2017) Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), cypermethrin, and d-limonene, alone and combined, on larval mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 54:1323–1327. https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjx092 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rey-Valeirón C, Guzmán L, Saa LR, López-Vargas J, Valarezo E (2017) Acaricidal activity of essential oils of Bursera graveolens (Kunth) Triana & Planch and Schinus molle L. on unengorged larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Essent Oil Res 29:344–350. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2016.1278405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro VLS, Rolim V, Bordignon S, Henriques AT, Dorneles GG, Limberger RP, Von Poser G (2008) Chemical composition and larvicidal properties of the essential oils from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Parasitol Res 102:531–535. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-007-0799-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampieri B, Arnosti A, Nunes P, Furquim K, Chierice G, Mathias M (2012) Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis). Microsc Res Tech 75:683–690. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.21112 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vendramini MCR, Mathias MIC, De Faria AU, Furquim KCS, De Souza LP, Bechara GH, Roma GC (2012) Action of andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) on Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morphophysiological evaluation of reproductive system. Microsc Res Tech 75:1745–1754. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22126 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar