Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 345–354 | Cite as

Isolation and characterization of two acaricidal compounds from Calpurnia aurea subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) leaf extract

  • Olubukola T. AdenubiEmail author
  • Muna Ali Abdalla
  • Aroke S. Ahmed
  • Emmanuel M. Njoya
  • Lyndy J. McGaw
  • Jacobus N. Eloff
  • Vinny Naidoo


The menace caused by ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major limitation to the livestock industry in Africa. The high costs and non-availability of synthetic, chemical acaricides to resource-limited farmers, resistance of ticks to available acaricides and residue problems in meat and milk consumed by humans further complicate matters. The use of plant extracts as a possible source of new acaricides has received much interest in the last decade. In our endeavour to discover natural acaricidal compounds, tick toxicant bioassays were conducted and the chloroform fraction of Calpurnia aurea ethanol leaf extract had good acaricidal activity. Further purification of the fraction revealed two flavonoids, isolated from C. aurea for the first time. These flavonoids were characterized as apigenin-7-O-β-d-glycoside and isorhoifolin by means of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry analysis. Isorhoifolin was the most potent compound (LC50 = 0.65 mg/ml), was not cytotoxic and should be further investigated for its potential as an acaricidal agent.


Acaricidal activity Plant extracts Flavonoids Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glycoside Isorhoifolin 



Financial support from the Technology Innovation Agency in conjunction with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University of Pretoria and the Schlumberger Faculty for the Future Foundation is thankfully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of PretoriaOnderstepoortSouth Africa
  2. 2.Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary SciencesUniversity of PretoriaOnderstepoortSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary MedicineFederal University of AgricultureAbeokutaNigeria

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