Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 74, Issue 4, pp 415–426 | Cite as

Sensitivity to house dust mite allergens and prevalence of allergy-causing house dust mite species in Pothwar, Pakistan

  • Rubaba Hamid Shafique
  • Shamim Akhter
  • Shahid Abbas
  • Muhammad Ismail
Article

Abstract

This study is the first report on the epidemiological status of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in Pothwar, Pakistan. Allergy data of 2087 symptomatic patients were obtained, of whom 1706 (81.7%) patients were skin-prick-test positive for HDM allergens. This percentage was significantly higher than for pollen and food allergens. In the results of this study Dermatophagoides farinae (61%) and D. pteronyssinus (29%) were the predominant species in the study area. Besides these pyroglyphids, predatory Cheyletus sp. (10%) and an oribatid mite sp. (1%) were also observed. Random and patients’ houses showed 87.4 and 87.1% positive mite infestation, respectively. Mean (± SEM) D. farinae counts per g of dust in random samples was 235.4 ± 7.93 compared to 274.7 ± 10.78 from patients’ homes. Mean D. pteronyssinus counts from random houses compared to patients’ houses were 115.0 ± 4.57 and 124.6 ± 5.76, respectively. Mite counts depicted seasonal variation, with peaks during monsoon season. ELISA results of dust samples demonstrated that of the dust samples with > 10 µg/g of dust, the threshold value described as a risk factor for developing asthma, 57.6% had Der f1 and 20% Der p1 allergen load. Mean Der f1 burden was significantly higher than Der p1, with maximum levels during monsoon and autumn seasons. This research established a better awareness about the epidemiological status of HDM allergy and prevalence of allergy causing HDM species in Pakistan.

Keywords

HDM allergy Epidemiology Prevalence of allergy causing HDM species Der f1 and Der p1 allergen 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was carried out under the financial support of Pakistan Science Foundation through its Project No. PSF/RES/C-IBGE/Med (318), funded to Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad.

References

  1. Abbas S, Katelaris CH, Singh AB et al (2012) World allergy organization study on aerobiology for creating first pollen and mold calendar with clinical significance in Islamabad, Pakistan: a project of world allergy organization and Pakistan allergy, asthma and clinical immunology Centre of Islamabad. World Allergy Organ J 5:103–110.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WOX.0b013e31826421c8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoli K, Cunnington AM (1977) House dust mites in Iran. Clin Allergy 7:93–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arlian LG, Platts-Mills TA (2001) The biology of dust mites and the remediation of mite allergens in allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:S406–S413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Assarehzadegan MA, Shakurnia A, Amini A (2013) The most common aeroallergens in a tropical region in Southwestern Iran. World Allergy Organ J 6:7.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1939-4551-6-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Aykut M, Erman OK, Doğan S (2016) Variability in population density of house dust mites of Bitlis and Muş, Turkey. J Med Entomol 53:513–518.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beasley R, Ellwood P, Asher I (2003) International patterns of the prevalence of pediatric asthma the ISAAC program. Pediatr Clin North Am 50:539–553CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beroiz B, Couso-Ferrer F, Ortego F et al (2014) Mite species identification in the production of allergenic extracts for clinical use and in environmental samples by ribosomal DNA amplification. Med Vet Entomol 28:287–296.  https://doi.org/10.1111/mve.12052 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boquete M, Iraola V, Fernandez-Caldas E et al (2006) House dust mite species and allergen levels in Galicia, Spain: a cross-sectional, multicenter, comparative study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 16:169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Calvo M, Fernandez-Caldas E, Arellano P, Marin F, Carnes J, Hormaechea A (2005) Mite allergen exposure, sensitisation and clinical symptoms in Valdivia, Chile. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 15:189–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Colloff MJ (2009) Dust mites. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colloff MJ, Stewart GA (1997) House dust mites. In: Barnes P, Grunstein MM, Leff AR, Woolcock AJ (eds) Asthma. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 1089–1103Google Scholar
  12. Cruickshank RH (2002) Molecular markers for the phylogenetics of mites and ticks. Syst Appl Acarol 7:3–14.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.7.1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dautartiene A (2001) Seasonal changes in house dust mites. Ecology 2:1–5Google Scholar
  14. Fain A, Guerin B, Hart B (1990) Mites and allergic disease. Allerbio, Varennes en ArgonneGoogle Scholar
  15. Faraji F, Bakker F (2008) A modified method for clearing, staining and mounting plant-inhabiting mites. Eur J Entomol 105:793–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feng M, Sun W, Cheng X (2009) Seasonal dynamics and distribution of house dust mites in China. Biosci Trends 3:210–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fereidouni M, Fereidouni F, Hadian M, Nourani Hasankiadeh S, Mazandarani M, Ziaee M (2013) Evaluation of the level of house dust mite allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1 in Iranian homes, a nationwide study. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 41:381–386.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aller.2012.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Henszel L, Kalisinska E, Kosik-Bogacka D, Kuzna-Grygiel W (2010) Mites in dust samples collected from sleeping places in apartments. Pol J Environ Stud 19:723–730Google Scholar
  19. Inam M, Shafique RH, Roohi N, Irfan M, Abbas S, Ismail M (2016) Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Springerplus 5:1330.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2980-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Jalil S, Bajwa RA (2014) Allergic rhinitis pattern of allergen sensitivity. Pak J Med Health Sci 8:922–925Google Scholar
  21. Johansson SG, Hourihane JO, Bousquet J et al (2001) A revised nomenclature for allergy. An EAACI position statement from the EAACI nomenclature task force. Allergy 56:813–824CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kampen H, Sternberg A, Proft J, Bastian S, Schaffner F, Maier WA, Seitz HM (2003) Polymerase chain reaction-based differentiation of the mosquito sibling species Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani (Diptera: Culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nabavizadeh SH, Al-Yasin S (2007) Distribution of allergens among allergic rhinitis patients living Shiraz (Iran) region. World Allergy Organ J S258Google Scholar
  24. Nascimento JM, Reis-Avila G, Dutra MS, Silva DE, Castro LCd, Ferla NJ (2017) Seasonal and environmental variations in community structure of house dust mites (Acari) in subtropical southern Brazil. Int J Acarology 43:86–90.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2016.1232309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Osakabe M, Hirose T, Sato M (2002) Discrimination of four Japanese Tetranychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae) using PCR-RFLP of the inter-transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Appl Entomol Zool (Jpn) 37:399–407.  https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2002.399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poucher KL, Hutcheson HJ, Keirans JE, Durden LA, Black WC (1999) Molecular genetic key for the identification of 17 Ixodes species of the United States (Acari: Ixodidae): a methods model. J Parasitol 85:623–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Prester L, Brcic Karaconji I, Macan J (2007) Determination of mite allergens in house dust using the enzyme immunoassay. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 58:413–419.  https://doi.org/10.2478/v10004-007-0034-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Saha GK (2016) House dust mite allergy—indian perspective. In Dust Allergy: Cause and Concern (pp. 53–63). Springer, Singapore.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1825-1_8
  29. Sepasgosarian H, Mumcuoglu Y (1979) Faunistische und ökologische studien der hausstaubmilben in Iran. Int J Acarology 5:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shafique RH, Klimov PB, Inam M, Chaudhary FR, OConnor BM (2014) Group 1 allergen genes in two species of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): direct sequencing, characterization and polymorphism. PLoS One 9:e114636.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114636 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Sinclair W, Coetzee L, Joubert G (2010) House-dust mite species in Bloemfontein, South Africa. S Afr Med J 100:164–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Zare M, Abtahi SM, Khazeni A (2017) Species identification and prevalence of house dust mites as respiratory allergen in kindergartens of the Bandar Abbas City. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017:7Google Scholar
  33. Spertini F, Berney M, Foradini F, Roulet CA (2010) Major mite allergen Der f 1 concentration is reduced in buildings with improved energy performance. Allergy 65:623–629.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02230.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ullah S, Niazi SA, Akhter MR (2005) Allergens in allergic rhinitis. Pak Armed Forces Med J 55:126–128Google Scholar
  35. Valdivieso R, Estupinan M, Iraola V (2010) Exposure to risky concentrations of Dermatophagoides allergens in a high-altitude population (Quito, 2800 m above sea level in the Andean Mountains). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 20:362–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Valero A, Serrano C (2004) Are environmental controls effective for house-dust-mite allergies? Arch Bronconeumol 40:389–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Voorhorst R (1967) Correspondence: of mites and men. Allergy 40:357–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wei DD, Yuan ML, Wang ZY, Wang D, Wang BJ, Dou W, Wang JJ (2011) Sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers region in psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) for phylogenetic inference and species discrimination. J Econ Entomol 104:1720–1729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wong SF, Chong AL, Mak JW, Tan J, Ling SJ, Ho TM (2011) Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites. Exp Appl Acarol 55:123–133.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-011-9460-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Katelaris CH, Mir AK, Raza MS, Abbas S, Singh AB, Syed MH (2007) Aerobiology of Islamabad. World Allergy Organ J S258–S259Google Scholar
  41. Yan DC, Chung FF, Lin SJ, Wan GH (2016) The relationships among Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus exposure, exhaled nitric oxide, and exhaled breath condensate pH levels in atopic asthmatic children. Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e4825.  https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000004825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yang B, Cai J, Cheng X (2011) Identification of astigmatid mites using ITS2 and COI regions. Parasitol Res 108:497–503.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2153-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Yap J, Ching M, Cabanilla C, Ramos J (2014) Multiple house dust mite allergen-sensitization profiles in children with allergic asthma. J Allergy Ther 5:2Google Scholar
  44. Zeytun E, Doğan S, Özçiçek F, Ünver E (2017) Sensitivity to house dust mites allergens in patients with allergic asthma in Erzincan Province, Turkey. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 41:34–41.  https://doi.org/10.5152/tpd.2017.5059 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rubaba Hamid Shafique
    • 1
  • Shamim Akhter
    • 1
  • Shahid Abbas
    • 2
  • Muhammad Ismail
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyPir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University RawalpindiRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Allergy Asthma and Immunology Centre, Al Rehman ChambersIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Biomedical and Genetic EngineeringIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations