Advertisement

Asia Pacific Journal of Management

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 1053–1077 | Cite as

Differential promotive voice–prohibitive voice relationships with employee performance: Power distance orientation as a moderator

  • Jun Song
  • Jibao Gu
  • Jianlin WuEmail author
  • Shuo Xu
Article
  • 362 Downloads

Abstract

Increased attention has been paid to research on the outcomes of voice. However, the existing findings on the relationship between voice and employee performance are inconclusive. To address the insufficient understanding of the voice–employee performance relationship, this study proposed a model that specifies the relationships between two types of voice (i.e., promotive and prohibitive) and employee performance along with the moderating role of power distance orientation. The results of the analysis of a sample in China that comprised 80 leaders and 431 employees showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between promotive voice and employee performance and a positive linear relationship between prohibitive voice and employee performance. Power distance orientation was found to significantly moderate the nonlinear and linear relationships. Specifically, the inverted U-shaped relationship was more pronounced, while the positive linear relationship was weaker among employees with high power distance orientation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with the limitations of this study and future research directions.

Keywords

Promotive voice Prohibitive voice Employee performance Power distance orientation 

Notes

Funding

This research was supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China (No. 17BGL077).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicting interests

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. 1991. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Angrist, J. D., Imbens, G. W., & Rubin, D. B. 1996. Identification of causal effects using instrumental variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 91(434): 444–455.Google Scholar
  3. Astakhova, M. N. 2015. The curvilinear relationship between work passion and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(2): 361–374.Google Scholar
  4. Aupperle, K. E., Carroll, A. B., & Hatfield, J. D. 1985. An empirical examination of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 28(2): 446–463.Google Scholar
  5. Avery, D. R., & Quiñones, M. A. 2002. Disentangling the effects of voice: The incremental roles of opportunity, behavior, and instrumentality in predicting procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1): 81–86.Google Scholar
  6. Bashshur, M. R., & Oc, B. 2015. When voice matters a multilevel review of the impact of voice in organizations. Journal of Management, 41(5): 1530–1554.Google Scholar
  7. Bettis-Outland, H. 2012. Decision-making’s impact on organizational learning and information overload. Journal of Business Research, 65(6): 814–820.Google Scholar
  8. Blanc, P. M., & Gonzalez-Roma, V. 2012. A team level investigation of the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation, and commitment and performance. Leadership Quarterly, 23(3): 534–544.Google Scholar
  9. Bochner, S., & Hesketh, B. 1994. Power distance, individualism/collectivism, and job-related attitudes in a culturally diverse work group. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 25(2): 233–257.Google Scholar
  10. Bollen, K. A., & Paxton, P. 1998. Detection and determinants of bias in subjective measures. American Sociological Review, 63(3): 465–478.Google Scholar
  11. Bommer, W. H., Johnson, J. L., Rich, G. A., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. 1995. On the interchangeability of objective and subjective measures of employee performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 48(3): 587–605.Google Scholar
  12. Botero, I. C., & Van Dyne, L. 2009. Employee voice behavior: Interactive effects of LMX and power distance in the United States and Colombia. Management Communication Quarterly, 23(1): 84–104.Google Scholar
  13. Brislin, R. W. 1986. The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. J. Lonner, & J. W. Berry (Eds.). Field methods in cross-cultural research: 137–164. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Bryson, A. 2004. Managerial responsiveness to union and nonunion worker voice in Britain. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 43(1): 213–241.Google Scholar
  15. Bryson, A., Charlwood, A., & Forth, J. 2006. Worker voice, managerial response and labour productivity: An empirical investigation. Industrial Relations Journal, 37(5): 438–455.Google Scholar
  16. Bryson, A., Willman, P., Gomez, R., & Kretschmer, T. 2013. The comparative advantage of non-union voice in Britain, 1980–2004. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 52(s1): 194–220.Google Scholar
  17. Chang, P. C., & Chen, S. J. 2011. Crossing the level of employee’s performance: HPWS, affective commitment, human capital, and employee job performance in professional service organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4): 883–901.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, A. S. Y., & Hou, Y. H. 2016. The effects of ethical leadership, voice behavior and climates for innovation on creativity: A moderated mediation examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1): 1–13.Google Scholar
  19. Cheng, J. W., Lu, K. M., Chang, Y. Y., & Johnstone, S. 2013. Voice behavior and work engagement: The moderating role of supervisor-attributed motives. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 51(1): 81–102.Google Scholar
  20. Cherrington, D. J., Reitz, H. J., & Scott, W. E. 1971. Effects of contingent and noncontingent reward on the relationship between satisfaction and task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55(6): 531–536.Google Scholar
  21. Dane, E. 2011. Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management, 37(4): 997–1018.Google Scholar
  22. Daniels, M. A., & Greguras, G. J. 2014. Exploring the nature of power distance implications for micro-and macro-level theories, processes, and outcomes. Journal of Management, 40(5): 1202–1229.Google Scholar
  23. De Luque, M. F. S., & Sommer, S. M. 2000. The impact of culture on feedback-seeking behavior: An integrated model and propositions. Academy of Management Review, 25(4): 829–849.Google Scholar
  24. Earley, P. C., & Erez, M. 1997. The transplanted executive: Why you need to understand how workers in other countries see the world differently. New York:Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. 2007. Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support–employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3): 715–729.Google Scholar
  26. Feldman, J. M. 1981. Beyond attribution theory: Cognitive processes in performance appraisal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(2): 127–148.Google Scholar
  27. Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Bianco, A. T. 2003. Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built-in trade-off or separate strategic concerns? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90(1): 148–164.Google Scholar
  28. Fukukura, J., Ferguson, M. J., & Fujita, K. 2013. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3): 658–665.Google Scholar
  29. Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. 2007. Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1): 479–514.Google Scholar
  30. Giorgi, G., Leon-Perez, J. M., & Arenas, A. 2015. Are bullying behaviors tolerated in some cultures? Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between workplace bullying and job satisfaction among italian workers. Journal of Business Ethics, 131(1): 1–11.Google Scholar
  31. Gollan, P. J., & Wilkinson, A. 2007. Contemporary developments in information and consultation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(7): 1133–1144.Google Scholar
  32. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. 2003. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2): 348–362.Google Scholar
  33. Hair, J. T., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. 1992. Multivariate data analysis with reading, 3rd ed. New York, NY:Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Hofstede, G. 1980. Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1): 42–63.Google Scholar
  35. Hung, H. K., Yeh, R. S., & Shih, H. Y. 2012. Voice behavior and performance ratings: The role of political skill. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2): 442–450.Google Scholar
  36. Janssen, O. 2001. Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5): 1039–1050.Google Scholar
  37. Janssen, O., & Gao, L. 2015. Supervisory responsiveness and employee self-perceived status and voice behavior. Journal of Management, 41(7): 1854–1872.Google Scholar
  38. Kakkar, H., Tangirala, S., Srivastava, N. K., & Kamdar, D. 2016. The dispositional antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(9): 1342–1351.Google Scholar
  39. KaranikaMurray, M., Antoniou, A. S., Michaelides, G., & Cox, T. 2009. Expanding the risk assessment methodology for work-related health: A technique for incorporating multivariate curvilinear effects. Work & Stress, 23(2): 99–119.Google Scholar
  40. Kim, J., MacDuffie, J. P., & Pil, F. K. 2010. Employee voice and organizational performance: Team versus representative influence. Human Relations, 63(3): 371–394.Google Scholar
  41. Kim, T. Y., & Leung, K. 2007. Forming and reacting to overall fairness: A cross-cultural comparison. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 104(1): 83–95.Google Scholar
  42. Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J. L., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. 2009. Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4): 744–764.Google Scholar
  43. Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. 2006. A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(3): 285–320.Google Scholar
  44. Kong, F., Huang, Y., Liu, P., & Zhao, X. 2017. Why voice behavior? An integrative model of the need for affiliation, the quality of leader–member exchange, and group cohesion in predicting voice behavior. Group & Organization Management, 42(6): 792–818.Google Scholar
  45. Lam, C. F., DeRue, D. S., Karam, E. P., & Hollenbeck, J. R. 2011. The impact of feedback frequency on learning and task performance: Challenging the “more is better” assumption. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(2): 217–228.Google Scholar
  46. Lam, C. K., Huang, X., & Chan, S. C. 2015. The threshold effect of participative leadership and the role of leader information sharing. Academy of Management Journal, 58(3): 836–855.Google Scholar
  47. Lam, S. S., Chen, X. P., & Schaubroeck, J. 2002. Participative decision making and employee performance in different cultures: The moderating effects of allocentrism/idiocentrism and efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 45(5): 905–914.Google Scholar
  48. LePine, M. A., Zhang, Y., Crawford, E. R., & Rich, B. L. 2016. Turning their pain to gain: Charismatic leader influence on follower stress appraisal and job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 59(3): 1036–1059.Google Scholar
  49. Lian, H., Ferris, D. L., & Brown, D. J. 2012. Does power distance exacerbate or mitigate the effects of abusive supervision? It depends on the outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1): 107–123.Google Scholar
  50. Liang, J., Farh, C. I., & Farh, J. L. 2012. Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1): 71–92.Google Scholar
  51. Lin, S. H. J., & Johnson, R. E. 2015. A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5): 1381–1397.Google Scholar
  52. Lin, W., Wang, L., & Chen, S. 2013. Abusive supervision and employee well-being: The moderating effect of power distance orientation. Applied Psychology, 62(2): 308–329.Google Scholar
  53. Loi, R., Ao, O. K., & Xu, A. J. 2014. Perceived organizational support and coworker support as antecedents of foreign workers’ voice and psychological stress. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36: 23–30.Google Scholar
  54. Loi, R., Lam, L. W., & Chan, K. W. 2012. Coping with job insecurity: The role of procedural justice, ethical leadership and power distance orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3): 361–372.Google Scholar
  55. Maynes, T. D., & Podsakoff, P. M. 2014. Speaking more broadly: An examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1): 87–112.Google Scholar
  56. Mo, S., & Shi, J. 2016. The voice link: A moderated mediation model of how ethical leadership affects individual task performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 152(1): 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3332-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morrison, E. W. 2011. Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1): 373–412.Google Scholar
  58. Morrison, E. W. 2014. Employee voice and silence. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1): 173–197.Google Scholar
  59. Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. 2000. Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4): 706–725.Google Scholar
  60. Murphy, K. R. 2008. Explaining the weak relationship between job performance and ratings of job performance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(2): 148–160.Google Scholar
  61. Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. 2012. Employee voice behavior: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2): 216–234.Google Scholar
  62. Ozer, M. 2011. A moderated mediation model of the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6): 1328–1336.Google Scholar
  63. Qin, X., DiRenzo, M. S., Xu, M., & Duan, Y. 2014. When do emotionally exhausted employees speak up? Exploring the potential curvilinear relationship between emotional exhaustion and voice. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7): 1018–1041.Google Scholar
  64. Rapp, A. A., Bachrach, D. G., & Rapp, T. L. 2013. The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4): 668–677.Google Scholar
  65. Rothbard, N. P., & Wilk, S. L. 2011. Waking up on the right or wrong side of the bed: Start-of-workday mood, work events, employee affect, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 54(5): 959–980.Google Scholar
  66. Schmidt, A. M., & Dolis, C. M. 2009. Something’s got to give: The effects of dual-goal difficulty, goal progress, and expectancies on resource allocation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(3): 678–691.Google Scholar
  67. Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Crant, J. M. 2001. What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54(4): 845–874.Google Scholar
  68. Shaw, J. D., Zhu, J., Duffy, M. K., Scott, K. L., Shih, H. A., & Susanto, E. 2011. A contingency model of conflict and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2): 391–400.Google Scholar
  69. Shirom, A., Shechter Gilboa, S., Fried, Y., & Cooper, C. L. 2008. Gender, age and tenure as moderators of work-related stressors’ relationships with job performance: A meta-analysis. Human Relations, 61(10): 1371–1398.Google Scholar
  70. Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. 2006. The restless mind. Psychological Bulletin, 132(6): 946–958.Google Scholar
  71. Song, J., Wu, J., & Gu, J. 2017. Voice behavior and creative performance moderated by stressors. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 32(2): 177–192.Google Scholar
  72. Svendsen, M., Jønsson, T. S., & Unterrainer, C. 2016. Participative supervisory behavior and the importance of feeling safe and competent to voice. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 15(1): 25–34.Google Scholar
  73. Timming, A. R., & Johnstone, S. 2015. Employee silence and the authoritarian personality: A political psychology of workplace democracy. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 23(1): 154–171.Google Scholar
  74. Tsai, W. C., Chen, C. C., & Liu, H. L. 2007. Test of a model linking employee positive moods and task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6): 1570–1583.Google Scholar
  75. Umphress, E. E., Bingham, J. B., & Mitchell, M. S. 2010. Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4): 769–780.Google Scholar
  76. Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. 1998. Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1): 108–119.Google Scholar
  77. Van Dyne, L. V., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. 2003. Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs*. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6): 1359–1392.Google Scholar
  78. Vitell, S. J., King, R. A., Howie, K., Toti, J. F., Albert, L., Hidalgo, E. R., & Yacout, O. 2016. Spirituality, moral identity, and consumer ethics: A multi-cultural study. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(1): 147–160.Google Scholar
  79. Wallace, C., & Chen, G. 2006. A multilevel integration of personality, climate, self-regulation, and performance. Personnel Psychology, 59(3): 529–557.Google Scholar
  80. Wang, W., Mao, J., Wu, W., & Liu, J. 2012. Abusive supervision and workplace deviance: The mediating role of interactional justice and the moderating role of power distance. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50(1): 43–60.Google Scholar
  81. Ward, A. K., Ravlin, E. C., Klaas, B. S., Ployhart, R. E., & Buchan, N. R. 2016. When do high-context communicators speak up? Exploring contextual communication orientation and employee voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(10): 1498–1511.Google Scholar
  82. Watkins, M. B., Kaplan, S., Brief, A. P., Shull, A., Dietz, J., Mansfield, M. T., & Cohen, R. 2006. Does it pay to be a sexist? The relationship between modern sexism and career outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3): 524–537.Google Scholar
  83. Weiss, H. M., & Rupp, D. E. 2011. Experiencing work: An essay on a person-centric work psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4(1): 83–97.Google Scholar
  84. Welbourne, T. M., Johnson, D. E., & Erez, A. 1998. The role-based performance scale: Validity analysis of a theory-based measure. Academy of Management Journal, 41(5): 540–555.Google Scholar
  85. Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Pierce, J. R. 2008. Effects of task performance, helping, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1): 125–139.Google Scholar
  86. Wilkinson, A., Dundon, T., Marchington, M., & Ackers, P. 2004. Changing patterns of employee voice: Case studies from the UK and Republic of Ireland. Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3): 298–322.Google Scholar
  87. Wilkinson, A., & Fay, C. 2011. New times for employee voice? Human Resource Management, 50(1): 65–74.Google Scholar
  88. Wood, S. J., & Wall, T. D. 2007. Work enrichment and employee voice in human resource management-performance studies. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(7): 1335–1372.Google Scholar
  89. Wu, J. H., & Wang, Y. M. 2006. Measuring KMS success: A respecification of the DeLone and McLean’s model. Information & Management, 43(6): 728–739.Google Scholar
  90. Zhou, J., & George, J. M. 2001. When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4): 682–696.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Business AdministrationNanjing University of Finance and EconomicsNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of ManagementUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry Chinese Academic of SciencesJilinChina

Personalised recommendations