Receipt of Promotional Payments at the Individual and Physician Network Level Associated with Higher Branded Antipsychotic Prescribing Rates

  • Simon HollandsEmail author
Original Article


Pharmaceutical promotion can lead to market size expansion, which is beneficial if previously untreated patients access treatment but deleterious if it leads to overuse, an area of concern for second generation antipsychotics (SGA). We contribute to a growing body of work suggesting that networks of social and professional relationships shape prescribing behavior. We examined 88,439 Medicare Part D prescribing physicians, finding that promotion is associated with SGA market size expansion (elasticity: 0.062) and that network-level promotional activity is associated with network members’ branded product prescribing. Research on the effects of promotion should account for its effects in prescribers’ networks.


Medicare Physician behavior Pharmaceutical promotion Social network analysis 



I gratefully acknowledge Dr. Marcela-Horvitz-Lennon, and Dr. Sharon-Lise Normand for their support and mentorship, reviews, and methodological advice. Additionally, I would like to acknowledge Lisa Jonsson, Michele Abbot, Sara Turner, Sujeong Park, Rouslan Karimov, PhuongGiang Nguyen, and Dr. Dmitry Khodyakov for their helpful comments.


Financial support for this study was provided in part by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH106682), the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01-MDO12428), and the Anne and James Rothenberg Dissertation Award. The funding agreements ensured the authors’ independence in designing the study, interpreting the data, writing, and publishing the report.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

The author declare that he has no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals/Informed Consent

This study uses publicly available, secondary data and was approved by the RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pardee RAND Graduate SchoolSanta MonicaUSA

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