Bacillus lacisalsi sp. nov., a moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a saline–alkaline lake
An alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic strain, designated YSP-3T, characterised by optimal growth at pH 9.0 and at 8.0% (w/v) NaCl, was isolated from Yangshapao Lake, Jilin Province, China. Cells of this strain is Gram-positive, straight rods and form a central or sub-terminal ellipsoidal endospore. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that it was grouped in the genus Bacillus with Bacillus aurantiacus K1-5T and Bacillus populi FJAT-45347T as the close relative (97.5 and 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Genomic relatedness between strain YSP-3T and its close relative was evaluated using average nucleotide identity, digital DNA–DNA hybridization and average amino acid identity with the values of 70.3–85.1%, 19.7–20.1% and 71.5–71.6%, respectively. Comparative genomics analysis showed that strain YSP-3T has distinct amino acid bias and significantly differences from foreign invasion events during evolution relative to the reference strains. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant quinone is menaquinone-7. The major fatty acids of strain YSP-3T are anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and Iso-C14:0. DNA G + C content of strain YSP-3T is 48.3 mol%. Based on genomics analysis, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, strain YSP-3T represent a novel species, for which the name Bacillus lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YSP-3T ( = ACCC 60365T = KCTC 33934T).
KeywordsBacillaceae Polyphasic taxonomy Comparative genomics Amino acid bias
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31300101) and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Non-profit Scientific Institution (Grant No. 1610042018005).
DL and WS wrote the main manuscript text. WH designed the experiments. DL and WS carried out the experiments. WH, ZB and ZX analysed the data. All authors approved and read the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this manuscript.
No specific ethical or institutional permits were required to conduct sampling and the experimental studies did not involve endangered or protected species.
- Ash C, Farrow JAE, Wallbanks S, Collins MD (1991) Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the genus Bacillus revealed by comparative analysis of small-subunit-ribosomal RNA sequences. Lett Appl Microbiol 13:202–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1991.tb00608.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cappuccino JG, Sherman N (2002) Microbiology: a laboratory manual, 6th edn. Pearson Education, Inc., Benjamin CummingsGoogle Scholar
- Dong XZ, Cai MY (2001) Determination of biochemical properties. In: Dong XZ, Cai MY (eds) Manual for the systematic identification of general bacteria. Science Press, Beijing, pp 370–398 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Embley TM (1996) The linear PCR reaction: a simple and robust method for sequencing amplified rRNA genes. Lett Appl Microbiol 13:171–174. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1991.tb00600.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1985.tb00420.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Costilow RN, Nester EW, Wood WA et al (1981) Manual of methods for general bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp 25–29Google Scholar
- Kelly KL (1964) Inter-society colour council-national bureau of standards colour-name charts illustrated with centroid colours published in US. US Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Logan NA, de Vos P, Genus I (2009) Bacillus. In: de Vos P, Garrity G, Jones D, Krieg NR, Ludwig W et al (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 3. Springer, New York, pp 21–128Google Scholar
- McDonald JH, Grasso AM, Rejto LK (1999) Patterns of temperature adaptation in proteins from Methanococcus and Bacillus. Mol Biol Evol 16:1785–1790. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rzhetsky A, Nei M (1992) A simple method for estimating and testing minimum-evolution trees. Mol Biol Evol 9:945. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040771 Google Scholar
- Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.moldev.a040454 Google Scholar
- Smibert RM, Krieg NR (1994) Phenotypic characterization. In: Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Wood WA, Krieg NR (eds) Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp 607–654Google Scholar
- Stackebrandt E, Ebers J (2006) Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol Today 33:152Google Scholar
- Wayne LG, Brenner DJ, Colwell RR, Grimont PAD, Kandler O et al (1987) International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1988.tb01872.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar