Phylogenomic analysis of the Brevibacillus brevis clade: a proposal for three new Brevibacillus species, Brevibacillus fortis sp. nov., Brevibacillus porteri sp. nov. and Brevibacillus schisleri sp. nov.

  • Eric T. Johnson
  • Christopher A. DunlapEmail author
Original Paper


During a screen for antifungal activity of Brevibacillus strains in the Northern Regional Research Laboratory collection we identified two strains with strong activity. Subsequent genomic sequencing and phylogenomic analysis revealed that these strains (NRRL NRS-1210T and NRRL B-41110T) are likely novel species. To confirm their taxonomic placement, we conducted a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis and subsequently sequenced the genomes of 10 Brevibacillus type strains with a 16S homology > 97%. Phylogenomic analysis of these type strains and of representative Brevibacillus strains deposited in GenBank also identified several novel clades that should be recognised as novel species. For one of these novel clades, we were able to obtain a publicly available isolate (ATCC 35690T) that could serve as a type strain. The three new species were subjected to a polyphasic characterisation to confirm their taxonomic status. Cells of strains NRRL NRS-1210T, NRRL B-41110T and ATCC 35690T are Gram-staining positive, motile and form tan colonies. All three strains are obligate aerobic mesophiles with a broad pH range for growth. The two most prominent fatty acids of the three strains were identified as iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. The DNA G+C contents of strains NRRL NRS-1210T, NRRL B-41110T and ATCC 35690T are 47.2 mol%, 47.1 mol% and 47.3 mol%, respectively. Based on these characteristics, three novel species are proposed: Brevibacillus fortis sp. nov. (NRRL NRS-1210T = DSM 9886T = ATCC 51666T), Brevibacillus porteri sp. nov. (NRRL B-41110T = KACC 19693T) and Brevibacillus schisleri sp. nov. (ATCC 35690T = LMG 17055T).


Antagonist Biocontrol Onion basal rot Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae 



The authors would like to thank Heather Walker and Mark Doehring of the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (U.S. Department of Agriculture) for helpful technical assistance. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mention of firm names or trade products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the USDA over other firms or similar products not mentioned. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.


Funding for this work was provided under USDA in-house project# 5010-22410-017-00-D.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interests in the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10482_2019_1232_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (459 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 459 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Bioprotection Research UnitUSDA ARSPeoriaUSA

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