Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 112, Issue 2, pp 237–251 | Cite as

l-Proline catabolism by the high G + C Gram-positive bacterium Paenarthrobacter aurescens strain TC1

  • Charles E. DeutchEmail author
Original Paper


Paenarthrobacter aurescens (formerly called Arthrobacter aurescens) strain TC1 is a high G + C Gram-positive aerobic bacterium that can degrade the herbicide atrazine. Analysis of its genome indicated strain TC1 has the potential to form a bifunctional PutA protein containing l-proline dehydrogenase and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (l1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase) activities. P. aurescens strain TC1 grew well in minimal media with l-Proline as a supplemental nutrient, the nitrogen source, or the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Multicellular myceloids induced by NaCl or citrate also grew on l-proline. The specific activity of l-proline dehydrogenase in whole cells was higher whenever l-proline was added to the medium. Both l-proline dehydrogenase and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (l1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase) activities were found primarily in a membrane fraction from exponential-phase cells. The two activities co-eluted from a Bio-Gel P-60 column after precipitation of proteins with ammonium sulfate and solubilization with 0.1% Tween 20. The PutA protein in the active fraction also oxidized 3,4-dehydro-dl-proline, but there was no activity with other l-proline analogues. When P. aurescens strain TC1 was grown in minimal media containing increasing concentrations of NaCl, there was a progressive decrease in the specific activity of l-proline dehydrogenase and a concomitant increase in the intracellular concentration of l-proline. These results indicate that P. aurescens strain TC1 can use l-proline as a nutrient in a regulated fashion. Because this bacterium also showed the ability to degrade most of the other common amino acids, it can serve as a useful model for the control of amino acid catabolism in the high G + C Actinobacteria.


Arthrobacter aurescens l-Glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase Paenarthrobacter aurescens l-Proline dehydrogenase PutA protein l1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase 



I thank Dr. Michael Sadowsky of the University of Minnesota for the culture of P. aurescens strain TC1 used in these studies. Disclaimer: some of these experiments were done off-campus and Arizona State University has no liability for that work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest in publishing this work.


There was no external funding source for this work.

Human and animal rights statement

No humans or animals were used in this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, MC 2352Arizona State University at the West campusGlendaleUSA

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