Advertisement

Shared mobility systems: an updated survey

  • Gilbert Laporte
  • Frédéric Meunier
  • Roberto Wolfler Calvo
SI: 4OR Surveys

Abstract

Transportation habits have been significantly modified in the past decade by the introduction of shared mobility systems. These have emerged as a partial response to the need of resorting to green means of transportation and to the desire of being more flexible in the choice of trips, both from a spatial and a temporal point of view. On the one hand, shared mobility systems have taken advantage of the interest of riders for shared experiences. On the other hand, their success has been possible as a result of the recent advances in information and communications technology. The operational research community is already very active in this emerging field, which provides a very rich source of new and interesting challenges, covering several planning levels, from strategic to operational ones, such as station location, station sizing, rebalancing routes. A fascinating feature of this field is the variety of the methods used to deal with these questions. Our purpose is to survey the main problems and methods arising in this field.

Keywords

Bicycle and car sharing Fleet dimensioning Inventory rebalancing Shared mobility systems Survey Vehicle repositioning 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially funded by the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council under Grant 2015-06189. This support is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Angeloudis, P., Hu, J., & Bell, M. G. H. (2014). A strategic repositioning algorithm for bicycle-sharing scheme. Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 10, 759–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benchimol, M., Benchimol, P., Chappert, B., de la Taille, A., Laroche, F., Meunier, F., et al. (2011). Balancing the stations of a self service “bike hire” system. RAIRO-Operations Research, 45, 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berman, B., Jerram, L., & Gartner, J. (2013). Casharing programs. Navigant Consulting, 3Q. www.navigantresearch.com. Accessed October 27, 2015.
  4. Bruglieri, M., Colorni, A., & Luè, A. (2014). The relocation problem for the one-way electric vehicle sharing. Networks, 64, 292–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bulhões, T., Subramanian, A., Erdoğan, G., & Laporte, G. (2018). The static bike relocation problem with multiple vehicles and visits. European Journal of Operational Research, 264, 508–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caggiani, L., & Ottomanelli, M. (2013). A dynamic simulation based model for optimal fleet repositioning in bike-sharing systems. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 87, 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chemla, D., Meunier, F., Pradeau, T., Wolfler Calvo, R., & Yahiaoui, H. (2013a). Self-service bike sharing systems: Simulation, repositioning, pricing. Technical report, \(<\)hal-00824078\(>\). https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00824078/document.
  8. Chemla, D., Meunier, F., & Wolfler Calvo, R. (2013b). Bike-sharing systems: Solving the static rebalancing problem. Discrete Optimization, 10, 120–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiariotti, F., Pielli, C., Zanella, A., & Zorzi, M. (2018). A dynamic approach to rebalancing bike-sharing systems. Sensors, 18, 512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chow, J. Y. J., & Sayarshad, H. R. (2014). Symbiotic network design strategies in the presence of coexisting transportation networks. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 62, 13–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colson, B., Marcotte, P., & Savard, G. (2007). An overview of bilevel optimization. Annals of Operations Research, 153, 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cômes, E., & Oukhellou, L. (2014). Model-based count series clustering for bike sharing system usage mining, a case study with the Vélib’ system of Paris. ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology, 5, 39:1–39:21.Google Scholar
  13. Contardo, C., Morency, C., & Rousseau, L.-M. (2012). Balancing a dynamic public bike-sharing system. Technical report, CIRRELT-2012-09. https://www.cirrelt.ca/DocumentsTravail/CIRRELT-2012-09.pdf
  14. Correia, G. H. de A., & Antunes, A. P. (2012). Optimization approach to depot location and trip selection in one-way car sharing systems. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 48, 233–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Datner, S., Raviv, T., Tzur, M., & Chemla, D. (to appear). Setting inventory levels in a bike sharing network. Transportation Science.  https://doi.org/10.1287/trsc.2017.0790.
  16. Dell’Amico, M., Hadjicostantinou, E., Iori, M., & Novellani, S. (2014). The bike sharing rebalancing problem: Mathemmatical formulations and benchmark instances. Omega, 45, 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeMaio, P. (2009). Bike-sharing: History, impacts, models of prevision, and future. Journal of Public Transportation, 12, 41–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dentcheva, D., Prékopa, A., & Ruszczyński, A. (2002). Bounds for probabilistic integer programming problems. Discrete Applied Mathematics, 124, 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Di Febbraro, A., Sacco, N., & Saeednia, M. (2012). One way car sharing: Solving the relocation problem. Transportation Research Record, 2319, 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Di Gaspero, L., Rendl, A., & Urli, T. (2013a). A hybrid ACO+CP for balancing bike sharing systems. In M. J. Blesa., C. Blum., P. Festa., A. Roli & M. Sampels (Eds.), Hybrid Metaheuristics. HM 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 7919). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Di Gaspero, L., Rendl, A., & Urli, T. (2013b). Constraint-based approaches for balancing bike sharing systems. In Principles and practice of constraint programming, 19th international conference (pp. 758–773). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Efthymiou, D., Antoniou, C., & Waddell, P. (2013). Factors affecting the adoption of vehicle sharing systems by young drivers. Transport Policy, 9, 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erdoğan, G., Battarra, M., & Wolfler Calvo., R. (2015). An exact algorithm for the static rebalancing problem arising in bicycle sharing systems. European Journal of Operational Research, 245, 667–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Erdoğan, G., Laporte, G., & Wolfler Calvo, R. (2014). The static bicycle relocation problem with demand intervals. European Journal of Operational Research, 238, 451–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Forma, I. A., Raviv, T., & Tzur, M. (2015). A 3-step math heuristic for the static repositioning problem in bike-sharing systems. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 71, 230–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Franceschetti, A., Jabali, O., & Laporte, G. (2017). Continuous approximation models in freight distribution management. TOP, 25, 413–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fricker, C., & Gast, N. (2016). Incentives and redistribution in homogeneous bike-sharing systems with stations of finite capacity. EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, 5, 261–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. George, D. K., & Xia, C. H. (2011). Fleet-sizing and service availability for a vehicle rental system via closed queueing networks. European Journal of Operational Research, 211, 198–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ghosh, S., & Varakantham, P. (2017) Incentivising the use of bike trailers for dynamic repositioning in bike sharing systems. In International conference on automated planning and scheduling (ICAPS).Google Scholar
  30. Ghosh, S., Varakantham, P., Adulyasak, Y., & Jaillet, P. (2017). Dynamic repositioning to reduce lost demand in bike sharing systems. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 58, 387–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ho, S. C., & Szeto, W. Y. (2017). A hybrid large neighborhood search for the static multi-vehicle bike-repositioning problem. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 95, 340–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kaspi, M., Raviv, T., & Tzur, M. (2014). Parking reservation policies in one-way vehicle sharing systems. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 62, 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaspi, M., Raviv, T., Tzur, M., & Galili, H. (2016). Regulating vehicle sharing systems through parking reservation policies: Analysis and performance bounds. European Journal of Operational Research, 251(33), 969–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kek, A. G. H., Cheu, R. L., Meng, Q., & Fung, C. H. (2009). A decision support system for vehicle relocation operations in carsharing systems. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 45, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kloimüllner, C., Papazek, P., Hu, B., & Raidl, G.R. (2014). Balancing bicycle sharing systems: An approach for the dynamic case. In Evolutionary computation in combinatorial optimisation—14th European conference, EvoCOP 2014, Granada, Spain, April 23–25, 2014, Revised selected papers (pp. 73–84).Google Scholar
  36. Kloimüllner, C., & Raidl, G. R. (2017). Full-load route planning for balancing bike sharing systems by logic-based Benders decomposition. Networks, 69, 270–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krumke, S. O., Quillot, A., Wagler, A. K., & Wegener, J.-T. (2013). Models and algorithms for carsharing systems and related problems. Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics, 44, 201–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar, V. P., & Bierlaire, M. (2012). Optimizing locations for a vehicle sharing system. In Proceedings of the Swiss transport research conference (STRC) (pp. 1–30) Ascona, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  39. Kumar, A., Teo, K. M., & Odoni, A. R. (2013). A systems perspective of cycling and bike-sharing systems in urban mobility. In 30th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. St. Gallen, Switzerland, 22-26 July, 2012. https://ares.lids.mit.edu/fm/documents/systems_perspective2.pdf.
  40. Laporte, G., Meunier, F., & Wolfler Calvo, R. (2015). Shared mobility systems. 4OR, 13, 341–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li, X., Ma, J., Cui, J., Ghiasi, A., & Zhou, F. (2016a). Design framework of large-scale one-way electric vehicle sharing systems: A continuum approximation model. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 88, 21–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li, Y., Szeto, W. Y., Long, J., & Shui, C. S. (2016b). A multiple type bike repositioning problem. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 90, 263–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lin, J.-R., & Yang, T.-H. (2011). Strategic design of public bicycle sharing systems with service level constraints. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 47, 284–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lin, J.-R., Yang, T.-H., & Chang, Y.-C. (2013). A hub location inventory model for bicycle sharing system design: Formulation and solution. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 65, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lu, C.-C. (2013). Robust multi-period fleet allocation models for bike-sharing systems. Networks and Spatial Economics, 13, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martens, K. (2007). Promoting bike-and-ride: The Dutch experience. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41, 326–338.Google Scholar
  47. Martinez, L. M., Caetano, L., Eiró, T., & Cruz, F. (2012). An optimization algorithm to establish the location of stations of a mixed fleet biking system: an application to the city of Lisbon. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 54, 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Médard de Chardon, C., Caruso, G., & Thomas, I. (2016). Bike-share rebalancing strategies, patterns, and purpose. Journal of Transport Geography, 55, 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meunier, F. (2014). Systèmes de véhicules partagés: des défis pour la RO. Bulletin de la ROADEF, 9–13. n\(^{\circ }\)32 - Printemps - Été 2014.Google Scholar
  50. Midgley, P. (2011). Bicycle-sharing schemes: Enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas. Technical report, Commission on Sustainable Development, UN, Departement of Economic and Social Affairs. Background Paper No. 8. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/dsd/resources/res_pdfs/csd-19/Background-Paper8-P.Midgley-Bicycle.pdf.
  51. Nair, R., & Miller-Hooks, E. (2011). Fleet management for vehicle sharing operations. Transportation Science, 45, 524–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nair, R., & Miller-Hooks, E. (2014). Equilibrium network design of shared-vehicle systems. European Journal of Operational Research, 235, 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pal, A., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Free-floating bike sharing: Solving real-life large-scale static rebalancing problems. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 80, 92–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Perboli, G., Caroleo, B., & Musso, S. (2017). Car-sharing: Current and potential members behavior analysis after the introduction of the service. In 2017 IEEE 41st annual computer software and applications conference (COMPSAC) (Vol. 2, pp. 771–776).Google Scholar
  55. Pfrommer, J., Warrington, J., Schildbach, G., & Morari, M. (2014). Dynamic vehicle redistribution and online price incentives in shared mobility systems. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 99, 1–12.Google Scholar
  56. Prékopa, A. (1990). Dual method for the solution of a one-stage stochastic programming problem with random rhs obeying a discrete probability distribution. Mathematical Methods of Operations Research, 34, 441–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rainer-Harbach, M., Papazek, P., Raidl, G. R., Hu, B., & Kloimüllner, C. (2015). PILOT, GRASP, and VNS approaches for the static balancing of bicycle sharing systems. Journal of Global Optimization, 63, 597–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Raviv, T., & Kolka, O. (2013). Optimal inventory management of a bike-sharing station. IEEE Transactions, 45, 1077–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Raviv, T., Tzur, M., & Forma, I. A. (2013). Static repositioning in a bike-sharing system: Models and solution approaches. EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, 2, 187–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sayarshad, H., Tavassoli, S., & Zhao, F. (2012). Multi-periodic optimization formulation for bike planning and bike utilization. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 36, 4944–4951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schuijbroek, J., Hampshire, R. C., & van Hoeve, W.-J. (2017). Inventory rebalancing and vehicle routing in bike sharing systems. European Journal of Operational Research, 257, 992–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shaheen, S. A., & Cohen, A. P. (1992). Growth in worldwide carsharing an international comparison. Transportation Research Record, 81–89, 2007.Google Scholar
  63. Shu, J., Chou, M. C., Liu, Q., Teo, C.-P., & Wang, I.-L. (2013). Models for effective deployment and redistribution for bicycles within public bicyle-sharing systems. Operations Research, 61, 1346–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Singla, A., Santoni, M., Bartók, G., Mukerji, P., Meenen, M., & Krause, A. (2015). Incentivizing users for balancing bike sharing systems. In Proceedings of conference on artificial intelligence (AAAI) (pp. 723–729).Google Scholar
  65. Spiess, H., & Florian, M. (1989). Optimal strategies: A new assignment model for transit networks. Transportation Research Part B: Methodology, 23, 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Szeto, W. Y., Liu, Y., & Ho, S. C. (2016). Chemical reaction optimization for solving a static bike repositioning problem. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 47, 104–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vogel, P., Greiser, T., & Mattfeld, D. C. (2012). Understanding bike-sharing systems using data mining: Exploring activity patterns. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 20, 514–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vogel, P., Neumann Saavedra, B. A., & Mattfeld, D. C. (2014). A hybrid metaheuristic to solve the resource allocation problem in bike sharing systems. M. J. Blesa., C. Blum., & S. Voß (Eds.), Hybrid Metaheuristics. HM 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 8457). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Waserhole, A. (2013). Vehicle sharing systems pricing optimization. Ph.D. thesis, Université de Grenoble.Google Scholar
  70. Waserhole, A., Jost, V., & Brauner, N. (2013a). Vehicle sharing system optimization: Scenario based approach. Technical report, Université de Grenoble. \(<\)hal-00727040v4\(>\). https://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/hal-00727040v4/document.
  71. Waserhole, A., Jost, V., & Brauner, N. (2013b). Vehicle sharing system pricing regulation: A fluid approximation. Technical report, Université de Grenoble. \(<\)hal-00727041v4\(>\). https://hal.archivesouvertes.fr/hal-00727041v4/document.
  72. Wikipedia. (2018a). Bicycle-sharing system. Accessed April 4, 2018.Google Scholar
  73. Wikipedia. (2018b). Carsharing. Accessed April 4, 2018.Google Scholar
  74. Zhang, D., Yu, C., Desai, J., Lau, H. Y. K., & Srivathsan, S. (2017). A time-space network flow approach to dynamic repositioning in bicycle sharing systems. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 103, 188–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HEC MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Université Paris Est, CERMICS (ENPC)Marne-la-ValléeFrance
  3. 3.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LIPN, CNRS UMR 7030VilletaneuseFrance

Personalised recommendations