An imperceptible, robust, and high payload capacity audio watermarking scheme based on the DCT transformation and Schur decomposition

  • Huda Karajeh
  • Mahmoud MaqablehEmail author


This paper proposes a novel audio watermarking scheme based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and Schur decomposition. The proposed scheme uses the DCT transformation to increase robustness and the Schur decomposition to achieve perceptual transparency. The proposed scheme first applies the DCT transformation to the original audio signal and then applies the Schur decomposition to the mid-frequency band of the DCT coefficients that generate two matrices (U and S). The watermark bits are embedded into the diagonal elements of the triangular matrix S. The Schur decomposition increases the perceptual transparency and the DCT transformation increases robustness of the proposed audio watermarking scheme by effectively resisting several types of audio signal attacks. The imperceptibility of the proposed watermarking scheme is measured subjectively using subjective difference grades (SDG) and objectively using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and objective difference grades (ODG) metrics. Its robustness is evaluated against several types of attacks in terms of NC and BER for different types of audio. The resulting of payload capacity, SNR, NC, and BER are as high as 516.26 bps, 77.95, 0.05326, and 0.9727, respectively. Experimental results confirm the proposed scheme is efficient, imperceptible, and robust with a high payload capacity and no effecting audio signal.


Audio watermark DCT Schur Payload capacity Signal-to-noise ratio Signal processing 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Information Systems Department, King Abdullah II School for Information TechnologyThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Management Information Systems Department, School of BusinessThe University of JordanAmmanJordan

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