A novel low SAR water-based mobile handset antenna
- 122 Downloads
The effect of mobile phones on human health is becoming a serious concern in the last decade. This paper suggests a novel water-based cellular phone antenna for reducing the electromagnetic wave radiation toward human head. Two antennas are considered: a single band PIFA operating at 1.8 GHz, and a dual band PIFA operating at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is decreased up to 0.6 W/kg by limiting the propagation of near electromagnetic fields toward the human head and therefore reducing the current density distribution. The reduction of SAR is carried out by introducing an U-edge wall made of an absorbing water material at each corner of the ground plane.
KeywordsWater material PIFA SAR Current density
- 2.Lavanya, A. B. (2014). Effects of electromagnetic radiation on biological systems: A short review of case studies. In 8th international conference on electromagnetic interference and compatibility (IEEE Cat. No. 03TH8706).Google Scholar
- 3.Sienkiewicz, Z. J. (1997). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation. In IEEE colloquium on electromagnetic hazards, safety and human interaction (Digest No. 1997/056).Google Scholar
- 5.Mary, T. A. J., & Ravichandran, C. S. (2012). SAR reduction in slotted PIFA for mobile handsets using RF shield. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 7(11), 1501–1505.Google Scholar
- 6.Sultan, K. S., Abdullah, H. H., Abdallah, E. A., & Hashish, E. A. (2013). Low SAR, compact and multiband antenna. In PIERS proceedings. Taipei.Google Scholar
- 8.Kusuma, A. H., Sheta, A. F., Elshafiey, I., Alkanhal, M., Aldosari, S., Siddiqui, Z., & Alshebeili, S. A. (2010). A novel low SAR PIFA for mobile terminal. In 2010 IEEE 21st international symposium on personal indoor and mobile radio communications (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
- 9.Xing, L., Huang, Y., Shen, Y., Alja’afreh, S., Xu, Q., & Alrawashdeh, R. (2015). Further investigation on water antennas. IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, 9(8), 735–741.Google Scholar
- 10.Balanis, C. A. (2005). Antenna theory: Analysis and design (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- 11.Hirasawa, K., & Haneishi, M. (1992). Analysis, design, and measurement of small and low-profile antennas. Boston: Artech House.Google Scholar
- 12.Raad, H. (2017). SAR reduction for PIFA antennas used in mobile phones. In Advances in antenna engineering and wireless systems research (pp. 57–77). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.Google Scholar
- 13.Xing, L. (2015). Investigations of water-based liquid antennas for wireless communications. The University of Liverpool Repository: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/2037241/.
- 16.Faruque, M. R. I., Islam, M. T., & Misran, N. (2010). SAR analysis in human head tissues for different types of antennas. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11, 1089–1096.Google Scholar
- 17.Abdulrazzaq, S. A., & Aziz, J. S. (2013). SAR simulation in human head exposed to RF signals and safety precautions. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Computer Technology, 3(9), 334–340.Google Scholar