AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 331–343 | Cite as

Gender Non-affirmation from Cisgender Male Partners: Development and Validation of a Brief Stigma Scale for HIV Research with Transgender Men Who Have Sex with Men (Trans MSM)

  • Sari L. ReisnerEmail author
  • Chiara S. Moore
  • Andrew Asquith
  • Dana J. Pardee
  • Kenneth H. Mayer
Original Paper


Some transgender men who have sex with men (trans MSM) are vulnerable to HIV infection and face stigma from sexual partners. We evaluated a brief 4-item measure of gender non-affirmation from cisgender male partners. A non-probability sample of American trans MSM (n = 843) reporting past 6-month sexual contact with a cisgender male completed a cross-sectional survey. Psychometric analyses assessed the scale and modeled HIV risk associations. Overall, 78% experienced past 6-month gender non-affirmation from cisgender male partners. The scale demonstrated good reliability (α = 0.78). Convergent validity was supported in associations with psychological distress and anxiety (p < 0.05). Lower frequency of cisgender male partner stigma was associated with increased odds of past 6-month HIV testing and decreased odds of past 6-month condomless receptive sex (all p < 0.01). The gender non-affirmation from cisgender male sexual partners scale found negative associations with protective health behaviors and can be used to better understand the context of trans MSM risk behavior.


HIV prevention Transgender Stigma MSM 



Funding was provided by Gilead Sciences (Grant No. CO-US-276-4389)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sari L. Reisner
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Chiara S. Moore
    • 1
  • Andrew Asquith
    • 1
  • Dana J. Pardee
    • 1
  • Kenneth H. Mayer
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.The Fenway Institute, Fenway HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Pediatrics, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Global Health and PopulationHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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