AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 3044–3051 | Cite as

HIV Testing and ART Adherence Among Unstably Housed Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

  • Stephanie L. CreasyEmail author
  • Emmett R. Henderson
  • Leigh A. Bukowski
  • Derrick D. Matthews
  • Ronald D. Stall
  • Mary E. Hawk
Original Paper


Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) have the highest HIV incidence rate among all MSM in the United States (US), and are also disproportionately affected by homelessness and housing instability. However, little is known about the effects of homelessness on the HIV testing and care continuum for BMSM. Between 2014 and 2017, the Promoting Our Worth, Equality, and Resilience (POWER) study collected data and offered HIV testing to 4184 BMSM at Black Pride events in six US cities. Bivariate analyses were used to assess differences in sociodemographics and healthcare access between BMSM who self-reported homelessness and those who did not. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess differences in HIV testing by homelessness status. Finally, bivariate and multivariable models were used to assess differences in HIV care continuum and treatment adherence outcomes by homelessness status. 615 (12.1%) BMSM in our sample experienced homelessness in the last 12 months. BMSM who self-reported homelessness had higher odds of receiving an HIV test in the past 6 months compared to their stably housed counterparts. BMSM who self-reported homelessness had higher odds of reporting difficulty taking ART and of missing a dose in the past week compared to stably housed BMSM. Findings suggest that HIV testing outreach and treatment-related services targeting unstably housed BMSM may be effective. Future community-based research is needed to investigate how homelessness and housing instability affect ART adherence, and how this population may experience success in HIV testing and adherence despite economic and social marginalization.


HIV Homelessness BMSM Community sampling Black African American 



The authors thank the Center for Black Equity and local Black Pride organizations for partnering with us to implement POWER, the community-based organizations who performed onsite HIV testing on the study’s behalf, the thousands of study participants who volunteered their time to contribute to this research, and members of the POWER Study Team who made data collection possible. The local Black Pride organizations are as follows: D.C. Black Pride, Detroit’s Hotter than July, Houston Splash, In the Life Atlanta, Memphis Black Pride, and Philadelphia Black Pride. The community-based organizations that performed onsite HIV testing are as follows: Atlanta: AID Atlanta, AIDS Health Care Foundation, NAESM; Detroit: Community Health Awareness Group, Horizons Project, Unified; Houston: Avenue 360, Houston AIDS Foundation, Positive Efforts; Memphis: Friends for Life; Philadelphia: Access Matters, Philadelphia FIGHT; Washington, D.C.: Us Helping Us. The members of POWER study team are as follows: Center for Black Equity: Earl D. Fowlkes, Jr., Michael S. Hinson, Jr.; Columbia University: Patrick A. Wilson; University of Connecticut: Lisa A. Eaton; Rutgers University: Henry Fisher-Raymond; University of Pittsburgh: Leigh A. Bukowski, Cristian J. Chandler, Derrick D. Matthews, Steven P. Meanley, Jordan M. Sang, and Ronald D. Stall.


Supported in part by the National Institute for Nursing Research (Grant No. R01NR013865). The authors have no other financial disclosures. ERH is supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. T32MH094174).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Center for LGBT Health Research, Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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