Accessing Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Perceptions of Current and Potential PrEP Users in Birmingham, Alabama

  • Whitney S. RiceEmail author
  • Kristi L. Stringer
  • Maira Sohail
  • Kaylee B. Crockett
  • Ghislaine C. Atkins
  • Kachina Kudroff
  • D. Scott Batey
  • Joshua Hicks
  • Janet M. Turan
  • Michael J. Mugavero
  • Bulent Turan
Original Paper


Limited studies to date assess barriers to and facilitators of PrEP uptake and utilization using a patient-centered access to care framework, among diverse socio-demographic groups, or in the U.S. Deep South, an area with disproportionate HIV burden. We examine perceptions of PrEP access in qualitative interviews with 44 current and potential PrEP users in Birmingham, Alabama. Participants were 32 years old on average, 66% Black, 66% gay or lesbian, 70% male, and 66% single. Perceived barriers to PrEP access included: lack of PrEP awareness and advertisement; sexuality-related stigma; time and resource constraints; and concerns about the adequacy and technical quality of PrEP services. Perceived facilitators to PrEP access were: PrEP-related information gathering and sharing; increased dialogue and visibility around PrEP; social, programmatic, and clinical support; and, lastly, self-preservation; personal motivation; and treatment self-efficacy. Results point to opportunities to address complex barriers to equitable PrEP access using multilevel and multimodal solutions.


Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Access HIV prevention Continuum of care 



This research was supported by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Center for AIDS Research, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded program (P30 AI027767) that was made possible by the following institutes: NIAID, NCI, NICHD, NHLBI, NIDA, NIA, NIDDK, NIGMS, and OAR. K.B.C. and W.S.R. received support through an institutional training grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ T32HS013852). K.L.S. received support through institutional training grants from the National Institute of Drug Abuse (5T32DA037801 and R25DA037190). Investigator support (B.T.) for this study was also provided by the National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH104114). The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the NIH or AHRQ.


This study was funded by the University of Alabama at Birmingham Center for AIDS Research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Whitney S. Rice declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kristi L. Stringer declares that she has no conflict of interest. Maira Sohail declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kaylee B. Crockett declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ghislaine C. Atkins declares that she has no conflict of interest. Kachina Kudroff declares that she has no conflict of interest. D. Scott Batey declares that he has no conflict of interest. Joshua Hicks declares that he has no conflict of interest. Janet M. Turan declares that she has no conflict of interest. Michael J. Mugavero has served as a scientific advisor for Gilead Sciences, Inc. Bulent Turan declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The human subjects protocol for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and at Emory University.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV in the Southern United States. 2016. Accessed 30 June 2018.
  2. 2.
    Adimora AA, Ramirez C, Schoenbach VJ, Cohen MS. Policies and politics that promote HIV infection in the Southern United States. AIDS. 2014;28(10):1393–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among transgender people. 2018. Accessed 30 June 2018.
  4. 4.
    Sullivan PS, Purcell DW, Grey JA, Bernstein KT, Gift TL, Wimbly TA, et al. Patterns of racial/ethnic disparities and prevalence in HIV and syphilis diagnoses among men who have sex with men, 2016: a novel data visualization. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(S4):S266–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark H, Babu AS, Wiewel EW, Opoku J, Crepaz N. Diagnosed HIV infection in transgender adults and adolescents: results from the national HIV surveillance system, 2009–2014. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(9):2774–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nwangwu-Ike N, Frazier EL, Crepaz N, Tie Y, Sutton MY. Racial and ethnic differences in viral suppression among HIV-positive women in care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018;79(2):e56–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lesko CR, Cole SR, Miller WC, Westreich D, Eron JJ, Adimora AA, et al. Ten-year survival by race/ethnicity and sex among treated, HIV-infected adults in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(11):1700–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kramer MR, Black NC, Matthews SA, James SA. The legacy of slavery and contemporary declines in heart disease mortality in the U.S. South. SSM—Popul Health. 2017;3:609–17.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Watkins-Hayes C. Intersectionality and the sociology of HIV/AIDS: past, present, and future research directions. Annu Rev Sociol. 2014;40(1):431–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roberts D. Killing the black body: race, reproduction, and the meaning of liberty. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group; 2014.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gubrium AC, Mann ES, Borrero S, Dehlendorf C, Fields J, Geronimus AT, et al. Realizing reproductive health equity needs more than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2016. p. 18–9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2014: a clinical practice guideline. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service; 2014.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siegler AJ, Mouhanna F, Giler RM, Weiss K, Pembleton E, Guest J, et al. The prevalence of pre-exposure prophylaxis use and the pre-exposure prophylaxis-to-need ratio in the fourth quarter of 2017, United States. Ann Epidemiol. 2018;28(12):841–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reif S, Geonnotti KL, Whetten K. HIV infection and AIDS in the Deep South. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(6):970–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elopre L, Kudroff K, Westfall AO, Overton ET, Mugavero MJ. Brief report: the right people, right places, and right practices: disparities in PrEP access among African American men, women, and MSM in the Deep South. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(1):56–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kelley CF, Kahle E, Siegler A, Sanchez T, Del Rio C, Sullivan PS, et al. Applying a PrEP continuum of care for men who have sex with men in Atlanta, Georgia. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(10):1590–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arnold T, Brinkley-Rubinstein L, Chan PA, Perez-Brumer A, Bologna ES, Beauchamps L, et al. Social, structural, behavioral and clinical factors influencing retention in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) care in Mississippi. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(2):e0172354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koechlin FM, Fonner VA, Dalglish SL, O’Reilly KR, Baggaley R, Grant RM, et al. Values and preferences on the use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among multiple populations: a systematic review of the literature. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1325–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Galindo GR, Walker JNJ, Hazelton P, Lane T, Steward WT, Morin SF, et al. Community member perspectives from transgender women and men who have sex with men on pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: implications for implementation. Implement Sci IS. 2012;7:116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krakower D, Ware N, Mitty JA, Maloney K, Mayer KH. HIV providers’ perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis in care settings: a qualitative study. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(9):1712–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Auerbach JD, Kinsky S, Brown G, Charles V. Knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among US women at risk of acquiring HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(2):102–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Golub SA, Gamarel KE, Rendina HJ, Surace A, Lelutiu-Weinberger CL. From efficacy to effectiveness: facilitators and barriers to PrEP acceptability and motivations for adherence among MSM and transgender women in New York City. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2013;27(4):248–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Flash CA, Stone VE, Mitty JA, Mimiaga MJ, Hall KT, Krakower D, et al. Perspectives on HIV prevention among Urban black women: a potential role for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2014;28(12):635–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu A, Cohen S, Follansbee S, Cohan D, Weber S, Sachdev D, et al. Early experiences implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in San Francisco. PLoS Med. 2014;11(3):e1001613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Desai M, Gafos M, Dolling D, McCormack S, Nardone A. Healthcare providers’ knowledge of, attitudes to and practice of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. HIV Med. 2016;17(2):133–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puro V, Palummieri A, De Carli G, Piselli P, Ippolito G. Attitude towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Corneli A, Perry B, McKenna K, Agot K, Ahmed K, Taylor J, et al. Participants’ explanations for nonadherence in the FEM-PrEP clinical trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;71(4):452–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith DK, Toledo L, Smith DJ, Adams MA, Rothenberg R. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). AIDS Educ Prev. 2012;24(5):408–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Corneli A, Wang M, Agot K, Ahmed K, Lombaard J, Van Damme L. Perception of HIV risk and adherence to a daily, investigational pill for HIV prevention in FEM-PrEP. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;67(5):555–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khawcharoenporn T, Kendrick S, Smith K. HIV risk perception and preexposure prophylaxis interest among a heterosexual population visiting a sexually transmitted infection clinic. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2012;26(4):222–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guest G, Shattuck D, Johnson L, Akumatey B, Clarke EE, Chen PL, et al. Acceptability of PrEP for HIV prevention among women at high risk for HIV. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(4):791–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wingood GM, Dunkle K, Camp C, Patel S, Painter JE, Rubtsova A, et al. Racial differences and correlates of potential adoption of preexposure prophylaxis: results of a national survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2013;63(Suppl 1(0 1)):S95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mullins TLK, Lally M, Zimet G, Kahn JA. Adolescent medicine trials network for HIVAI. Clinician attitudes toward CDC interim pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) guidance and operationalizing PrEP for adolescents. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2015;29(4):193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Senn H, Wilton J, Sharma M, Fowler S, Tan DHS. Knowledge of and opinions on HIV preexposure prophylaxis among front-line service providers at Canadian AIDS service organizations. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29(9):1183–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levesque JF, Harris MF, Russell G. Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations. Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fauk NK, Sukmawati AS, Berek PAL, Ernawati, Kristanti E, Wardojo SSI, et al. Barriers to HIV testing among male clients of female sex workers in Indonesia. Int J Equity Health. 2018;17(1):68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meehan SA, Rossouw L, Sloot R, Burger R, Beyers N. Access to human immunodeficiency virus testing services in Cape Town, South Africa: a user perspective. Public Health Action. 2017;7(4):251–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yakob B, Ncama BP. Correlates of strengthening lessons from HIV/AIDS treatment and care services in Ethiopia perceived access and implications for health system. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0161553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gesesew HA, Ward P, Woldemichael K, Mwanri L. Late presentation for HIV care in Southwest Ethiopia in 2003–2015: prevalence, trend, outcomes and risk factors. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nunn AS, Brinkley-Rubinstein L, Oldenburg CE, Mayer KH, Mimiaga M, Patel R, et al. Defining the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis care continuum. AIDS. 2017;31(5):731–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mayer KH, Chan PA, Patel RR, Flash CA, Krakower DS. Evolving models and ongoing challenges for HIV preexposure prophylaxis implementation in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018;77(2):119–27.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buchbinder SP, Liu AY. CROI 2018: epidemic trends and advances in HIV prevention. Top. Antivir Med. 2018;26(1):1–16.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Siegler AJ, Bratcher A, Weiss KM, Mouhanna F, Ahlschlager L, Sullivan PS. Location location location: an exploration of disparities in access to publicly listed pre-exposure prophylaxis clinics in the United States. Ann Epidemiol. 2018;28(12):858–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PrEP. 2018. Accessed 30 Apr 2018.
  45. 45.
    Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    QSR International Pty Ltd. NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Victoria: QSR International Pty Ltd.; 2015.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hubach RD, Currin JM, Sanders CA, Durham AR, Kavanaugh KE, Wheeler DL, et al. Barriers to access and adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a relatively rural state. AIDS Educ Prev. 2017;29(4):315–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Underhill K, Morrow KM, Colleran C, Holcomb R, Calabrese SK, Operario D, et al. A qualitative study of medical mistrust, perceived discrimination, and risk behavior disclosure to clinicians by U.S. Male sex workers and other men who have sex with men: implications for biomedical HIV prevention. J Urban Health. 2015;92(4):667–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goparaju L, Praschan NC, Warren-Jeanpiere L, Experton LS, Young MA, Kassaye S. Stigma, partners, providers and costs: potential barriers to PrEP uptake among US women. J AIDS Clin Res. 2017;8(9):730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oldenburg CE, Perez-Brumer AG, Hatzenbuehler ML, Krakower D, Novak DS, Mimiaga MJ, et al. State-level structural sexual stigma and HIV prevention in a national online sample of HIV-uninfected MSM in the United States. AIDS. 2015;29(7):837–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Radley DC, McCarthy D, Hayes SL, Commonwealth Fund. Aiming higher: results from the Commonwealth Fund scorecard on state health system performance, 2017 edition. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2017. Accessed 4 Jan 2019.
  52. 52.
    Goswami ND, Schmitz MM, Sanchez T, Dasgupta S, Sullivan P, Cooper H, et al. Understanding local spatial variation along the care continuum: the potential impact of transportation vulnerability on HIV linkage to care and viral suppression in high-poverty areas, Atlanta, Georgia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;72(1):65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fontenot K, Semega J, Kollar M. Income and poverty in the United States: 2017. Suitland: U.S. Census Bureau; 2017.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Eaton LA, Driffin DD, Bauermeister J, Smith H, Conway-Washington C. Minimal awareness and stalled uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among at risk, HIV-negative, black men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(8):423–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fletcher FE, Fisher C, Buchberg MK, Floyd B, Hotton A, Ehioba A, et al. “Where did this [PrEP] Come From?” African American mother/daughter perceptions related to adolescent preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization and clinical trial participation. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics (JERHRE). 2018;13(2):173–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Copeland RM, Wilson P, Betancourt G, Garcia D, Penner M, Abravanel R, et al. Disparities in HIV knowledge and attitudes toward biomedical interventions among the non-medical HIV workforce in the United States. AIDS Care. 2017;29(12):1576–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Raifman J, Nunn A, Oldenburg CE, Montgomery MC, Almonte A, Agwu AL, et al. An evaluation of a clinical pre-exposure prophylaxis education intervention among men who have sex with men. Health Serv Res. 2017. Scholar
  58. 58.
    García M, Harris AL. PrEP awareness and decision-making for Latino MSM in San Antonio, Texas. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0184014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Collier KL, Colarossi LG, Sanders K. Raising awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women in New York City: Community and Provider Perspectives. J Health Commun. 2017;22(3):183–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Whiteside YO, Harris T, Scanlon C, Clarkson S, Duffus W. Self-perceived risk of HIV infection and attitudes about preexposure prophylaxis among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in South Carolina. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2011;25(6):365–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Elopre L, McDavid C, Brown A, Shurbaji S, Mugavero MJ, Turan JM. Perceptions of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among young, black men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2018;32(12):511–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine. Ending discrimination against people with mental and substance use disorders: the evidence for stigma change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Batey DS, Whitfield S, Mulla M, Stringer KL, Durojaiye M, McCormick L, et al. Adaptation and implementation of an intervention to reduce HIV-related stigma among healthcare workers in the United States: piloting of the FRESH workshop. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2016;30(11):519–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Raifman JR, Flynn C, German D. Healthcare provider contact and pre-exposure prophylaxis in baltimore men who have sex with men. Am J Prev Med. 2017;52(1):55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zhang HL, Rhea SK, Hurt CB, Mobley VL, Swygard H, Sena AC, et al. HIV preexposure prophylaxis implementation at local health departments: a statewide assessment of activities and barriers. J Acquir Defic Syndr. 2018;77(1):72–7.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    John SA, Rendina HJ, Grov C, Parsons JT. Home-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services for gay and bisexual men: an opportunity to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(12):e0189794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Siegler AJ, Mayer KH, Liu AY, Patel RR, Ahlschlager LM, Kraft CS, et al. Developing and assessing the feasibility of a home-based PrEP monitoring and support program. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;68(3):501–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bruno C, Saberi P. Pharmacists as providers of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. Int J Clin Pharm. 2012;34(6):803–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pinto RM, Berringer KR, Melendez R, Mmeje O. Improving PrEP implementation through multilevel interventions: a synthesis of the literature. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(11):3681–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Patel RR, Mena L, Nunn A, McBride T, Harrison LC, Oldenburg CE, et al. Impact of insurance coverage on utilization of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(5):e0178737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rowniak S, Ong-Flaherty C, Selix N, Kowell N. Attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to PrEP among trans men. AIDS Educ Prev. 2017;29(4):302–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Spinelli MA, Scott HM, Vittinghoff E, Liu AY, Morehead-Gee A, Gonzalez R, et al. A panel management and patient navigation intervention is associated with earlier PrEP initiation in a safety-net primary care health system. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018;79(3):347–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Saberi P, Berrean B, Thomas S, Gandhi M, Scott H. A simple pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) optimization intervention for health care providers prescribing PrEP: pilot study. JMIR Form Res. 2018;2(1):e2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kaiser Family Foundation. Status of state action on the medicaid expansion decision. Medicaid and Health Reform. 2018. Accessed 07 Nov 2018.
  75. 75.
    Gilead. 2017 year in review. Annual reports. 2018. Accessed 06 Jan 2019.
  76. 76.
    Aaron E, Blum C, Seidman D, Hoyt MJ, Simone J, Sullivan M, et al. Optimizing delivery of HIV preexposure prophylaxis for women in the United States. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2018;32(1):16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith DK, Mendoza MC, Stryker JE, Rose CE. PrEP awareness and attitudes in a national survey of primary care clinicians in the United States, 2009–2015. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(6):e0156592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Calabrese SK, Magnus M, Mayer KH, Krakower DS, Eldahan AI, Hawkins LAG, et al. “Support your client at the space that they’re in”: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescribers’ perspectives on PrEP-related risk compensation. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2017;31(4):196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gaist P, Stirratt MJ. The roles of behavioral and social science research in the fight against HIV/AIDS: a functional framework. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75(4):371–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Whitney S. Rice
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kristi L. Stringer
    • 2
  • Maira Sohail
    • 3
  • Kaylee B. Crockett
    • 4
  • Ghislaine C. Atkins
    • 5
  • Kachina Kudroff
    • 6
  • D. Scott Batey
    • 7
  • Joshua Hicks
    • 8
  • Janet M. Turan
    • 4
  • Michael J. Mugavero
    • 9
  • Bulent Turan
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Social Intervention Group, School of Social WorkColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  7. 7.Department of Social Work, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  8. 8.Magic City Wellness CenterBirminghamUSA
  9. 9.Division of Infectious Diseases, School of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations