Will We Get to Zero HIV Stigma in San Francisco?

  • Sofia Beltran
  • Yea-Hung Chen
  • Desmond Miller
  • Theresa Ick
  • Jessica Lin
  • Tracey Packer
  • Willi McFarlandEmail author
  • Henry F. Raymond
Original Paper


Cities worldwide are striving to get to zero HIV stigma as a condition to get to zero new infections. We tracked an indicator of perceived HIV stigma across surveys of men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco from 2011 to 2017. Little improvement in perceived HIV stigma was observed, from 22.3% (95% CI 18.7–26.3) of MSM agreeing with the statement “Most people would discriminate against someone with HIV” in 2011 to 21.0% (95% CI 17.5–24.9) in 2017 (χ2 test for trend 0.252, p = 0.616). Success in ending the epidemic may flag without addressing the causes of HIV stigma.


HIV stigma Men who have sex with men San Francisco 



This research was supported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1U1BPS003247, 5U1BPS003247, and 6NU62PS005077.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of California San Francisco. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    UNAIDS. Getting to zero. 2010;5–34. Accessed 13 Sept 2018
  2. 2.
    Getting to zero San Francisco. Accessed 13 Sept 2018
  3. 3.
    San Francisco Department of Public Health. HIV epidemiology annual report 2017. Accessed 13 Sept 2018
  4. 4.
    Rueda S, Mitra S, Chen S, et al. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses. BMJ Open. 2016;6(7):e011453. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tan RKJ. Internalized homophobia, HIV knowledge, and HIV/AIDS personal responsibility beliefs: correlates of HIV/AIDS discrimination among MSM in the context of institutionalized stigma. J Homosex. 2018;21:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Katz IT, Ryu AE, Onuegbu AG, Psaros C, Weiser SD, Bangsberg DR, Tsai AC. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16(3Suppl 2):18640. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Logie CH, Jenkinson JIR, Earnshaw V, Tharao W, Loutfy MR. A structural equation model of HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity and wellbeing among african and caribbean black women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(9):e0162826. Scholar
  8. 8.
    MacKellar D, Valleroy L, Karon J, Lemp G, Janssen R. The Young Men’s Survey: methods for estimating HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among young men who have sex with men. Public Health Rep. 1996;111(Suppl 1):138–44.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raymond HF, Guigayoma J, Snowden J, Chen Y-H, McFarland W. Community levels of PrEP use among men who have sex with men by race/ethnicity, San Francisco, 2017. Conference of the American Public Health Associattion, 2018 [Abstract #2057].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu H, Xu Y, Sun Y, Dumenci L. Measuring HIV stigma at the family level: psychometric assessment of the Chinese Courtesy Stigma Scales (CCSSs). PloS ONE. 2014;9(3):e92855. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hatzenbuehler ML. Structural stigma: research evidence and implications for psychological science. Am Psychol. 2013;71(8):742–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Earnshaw VA, Chaudoir SR. From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(6):1160–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sofia Beltran
    • 1
  • Yea-Hung Chen
    • 2
  • Desmond Miller
    • 2
  • Theresa Ick
    • 2
  • Jessica Lin
    • 2
  • Tracey Packer
    • 2
  • Willi McFarland
    • 2
    Email author
  • Henry F. Raymond
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.School of Public HealthRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

Personalised recommendations