Multilevel Factors Associated with a Lack of Viral Suppression Among Persons Living with HIV in a Federally Funded Housing Program

  • Christopher M. Beattie
  • Ellen W. WiewelEmail author
  • Yaoyu Zhong
  • Paul A. Brown
  • Sarah L. Braunstein
  • X. Pamela Farquhar
  • John Rojas
Original Paper


Persons with HIV who are receiving housing services often have high rates of engagement in care, yet many are not virally suppressed. We linked data from the New York City Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) program to electronically reported laboratory tests from the HIV surveillance registry to examine factors associated with a lack of viral suppression. Of 1491 HOPWA consumers, 523 (35.1%) were not durably suppressed, and 253 (17.0%) were unsuppressed at their last viral load test. Substance use, age < 27 years, and emergency housing all independently predicted lack of durable viral suppression and lack of viral suppression at last viral load test.


Housing HIV/AIDS HIV viral suppression 


Personas con VIH que reciben servicios de vivienda tienen alto índices de participación en su cuidado médico. Sin embargo, muchos no han logrado la supresión viral. Vinculamos los datos del Programa de Vivienda para Personas con VIH/SIDA (HOPWA) de la Ciudad de Nueva York con pruebas de laboratorio reportadas electrónicamente en el registro de vigilancia del VIH, con el fin de evaluar los factores asociados con la falta de la supresión viral. De 1491 participantes, 523 (35.1%) no lograron supresión viral de forma duradera, y 253 (17.0%) no lograron supresión viral de acuerdo a su última prueba de carga viral. El uso de sustancias, la edad menor de 27 años, y el alojamiento en una vivienda de emergencia, independientemente predijeron la falta de supresión viral duradera y la falta de supresión viral en la última prueba de carga viral.



All authors contributed substantially to the conception, design, analysis, and/or interpretation of data for this paper. All participated in critical revisions, approved this final version, and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. The authors thank the New York City’s HOPWA housing consumers and HOPWA sub-grantees, whose participation in the HOPWA program and completion of assessments made it possible to conduct this analysis. We are also grateful to colleagues in the Housing Services Unit and the HIV Epidemiology and Field Services Unit of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and staff of RDE Systems, developer of the eCOMPAS data system for HOPWA. The routine work of persons at all of these programs facilitated the analyses in this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Disease ControlNew York City Department of Health and Mental HygieneLong Island CityUSA

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