Intersectional Identities and HIV: Race and Ethnicity Drive Patterns of Sexual Mixing
Large disparities exist in HIV across racial and ethnic populations—with Black and Latino populations disproportionately affected. This study utilizes a large cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to examine how race and ethnicity drive sexual partner selection, and how those with intersecting identities (Latinos who identify as White or Black) differ from Latinos without a specific racial identification (Latinos who identify as “Other”). Data come from YMSM (N = 895) who reported on sexual partners (N = 3244). Sexual mixing patterns differed substantially by race and ethnicity. Latinos who self-identified as “Black” reported mainly Black partners, those who self-identified as “White” predominantly partnered with Whites, while those who self-identified as “Other” mainly partnered with Latinos. Results suggested that Black-Latino YMSM are an important population for prevention, as their HIV prevalence neared that of Black YMSM, and their patterns of sexual partnership suggested that they may bridge Black YMSM and Other-Latino YMSM populations.
KeywordsHIV Race/ethnicity Latino Sexual networks Disparities
This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse: K08DA037825, PI: Birkett; U01DA036939, PI: Mustanski.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2016. In: Services DoHaH, editor. Atlanta, Georgia: Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2017.Google Scholar
- 2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2013. MMWR Suppl. 2013;62(3):1–189.Google Scholar
- 3.Taylor P, Lopez MH, Martínez J, Velasco G. When labels don’t fit: hispanics and their views of identity: Pew Research Center; 2012. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/04/when-labels-dont-fit-hispanics-and-their-views-of-identity/.
- 10.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among Latinos. CDC Fact Sheet; 2017:1–2.Google Scholar
- 21.Bingham TA, Harawa NT, Johnson DF. The effect of partner characteristics on HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, CA. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(11):S193.Google Scholar
- 24.Anderson RM, Gupta S, Ng W. The significance of sexual partner contact networks for the transmission dynamics of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3(4):417–29.Google Scholar
- 25.Hogan B, Melville JR, Philips GL 2nd, Janulis P, Contractor N, Mustanski BS, et al. Evaluating the paper-to-screen translation of participant-aided sociograms with high-risk participants. Proc SIGCHI Conf Hum Factor Comput Syst. 2016;2016:5360–71.Google Scholar
- 26.Health NIo. NIH policy on reporting race and ethnicity data: Subjects in clinical research. National Institutes of Health; 2001. https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-01-053.html.
- 30.R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2017.Google Scholar
- 31.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among African Americans. CDC Fact Sheet. 2015:1–2.Google Scholar
- 32.Humes KR, Jones, Nicholas A., Ramirez, Roberto R. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010. In: Commerce USDo, editor. United States Census Bureau; 2011.Google Scholar
- 33.Logan JR. How race counts for Hispanic Americans. Albany: University of Albany; 2003.Google Scholar
- 36.U.S. Census Bureau. Summary File 1, Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin; generated by Michelle Birkett, using American FactFinder; 2010. http://factfinder.census.gov. Accessed 27 Feb 2018.