AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 359–365 | Cite as

Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Who Have Not Previously Tested for HIV: Results from the MSM Testing Initiative, United States (2012–2015)

  • Hollie A. ClarkEmail author
  • Emeka Oraka
  • Elizabeth A. DiNenno
  • Laura G. Wesolowski
  • Pollyanna R. Chavez
  • Marc A. Pitasi
  • Kevin P. Delaney
Original Paper


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends annual HIV tests for men who have sex with men (MSM), yet some have never tested. We analyzed data from the MSM Testing Initiative. Of 68,185 HIV tests, 8% were with MSM who never previously tested (“first-time testers”). Among tests with first-time testers, 70.7% were with MSM from racial or ethnic minorities; 66.5% were with MSM younger than 30 years. Tests with MSM who reported female partners only during the past year (compared to male partners only) or were recruited for at-home testing (compared to venue-based recruitment) were 4 times (prevalence ratio [PR] 3.62, 95% CI 3.15–4.15) and 5 times as likely (PR 4.69, 95% CI 4.22–5.21) to be associated with first-time testing. At-home testing and focusing on MSM who have sex with women may be effective methods for reaching MSM who are first-time testers.


HIV HIV testing MSM Gay or bisexual men 


Los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) recomiendan que hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) se hagan la prueba del VIH una vez al año, sin embargo, algunos nunca se la han hecho. Analizamos los datos de la iniciativa para promover la prueba del VIH entre HSH. De las 68,185 pruebas de VIH hechas, 8% fueron en HSH que nunca antes se habían hecho la prueba del VIH. De las pruebas del VIH hechas a HSH que se hicieron la prueba por primera vez, el 70,7% pertenecían a HSH de minorías raciales o étnicas; 66.5% eran HSH menores de 30 años. Las pruebas de VIH que fueron hechas a HSH que reportaron tener exclusivamente parejas sexuales femeninas durante los últimos 12 meses (comparado con pruebas hechas a hombres con parejas sexuales masculinas) o que fueron pruebas del VIH hechas en casa (comparado con pruebas hechas en hombres reclutados en lugares públicos) tienen 4 veces (razón de prevalencia [PR, por sus siglas en inglés] = 3.62, con un intervalo de coeficiencia (IC) del 95%: 3.15 – 4.15) y 5 veces (PR = 4.69, IC del 95%: 4.22 – 5.21) más probabilidad de haber sido la primera prueba de VIH hecha en estos hombres. Hacerse la prueba del VIH en casa y centrarse en los HSH que tienen relaciones sexuales con mujeres, pueden ser métodos eficaces para alcanzar a aquellos que nunca se han hecho la prueba del VIH.



The authors would like to thank Dr. Liza Solomon, Dr. Chanza Baytop, and Alex Orr, MPH, previously of Abt Associates and Dr. Patrick Sullivan of Emory University. Publication of this manuscript would not have been possible without their dedication towards project implementation and monitoring. The authors thank Dr. Muazzam Nasrullah and Dr. R. Luke Shouse of CDC’s National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Dr. Eduardo Valverde of CDC’s Center for Global Health, Division of Global HIV and TB for their contributions to the design and implementation of the MTI project. Finally, the authors thank Mr. Emilio German of CDC’s National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention for his assistance with Spanish translation.


The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10461_2018_2266_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)
10461_2018_2266_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hollie A. Clark
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emeka Oraka
    • 2
  • Elizabeth A. DiNenno
    • 1
  • Laura G. Wesolowski
    • 1
  • Pollyanna R. Chavez
    • 1
  • Marc A. Pitasi
    • 1
  • Kevin P. Delaney
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of HIV/AIDS PreventionCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB PreventionAtlantaGeorgia
  2. 2.ICF InternationalAtlantaGeorgia

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