HIV Risk and Gender in Jamaica’s Homeless Population
- 48 Downloads
Rigorous HIV-related data for the homeless population in Jamaica is limited. A cross-sectional survey using a venue-based sampling approach was conducted in 2015 to derive HIV prevalence and associated risk factors. Three hundred twenty-three homeless persons from the parishes of St. James, St. Ann, Kingston, and St. Andrew (the main urban centers) participated. HIV prevalence was 13.8%, with a difference in gender (males 11.6%, females 26.7%, P = .007). Sex work, multiple partnerships, incarceration, non-injecting drug use, and female rape were common among the participants. Long-term, multilayered, HIV-specific, female-focused interventions are required for the population, along with additional female-centric research.
KeywordsHIV Homeless Gender Jamaica
This study received support through the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to the Ministry of Health, Jamaica. The lead author (Nicola Skyers) received support from the University of California, San Francisco, via the following Grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH): International Traineeships in AIDS Prevention Studies (ITAPS, R25MH064712) and the Starr Foundation Scholarship Fund. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of GFATM or NIH.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
The survey was implemented as part of public health surveillance through the course of HIV prevention program activities. Review by Institutional Review Board was not required.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants in the study.
- 1.UNAIDS. HIV Estimates 2016 Jamaica. UNAIDS. 2017. http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/jamaica. Accessed 26 July 2017.
- 2.Figueroa JP, Cooper CJ, Edwards JK, Byfield L, Eastman S, Hobbs MM, et al. Understanding the high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among socio-economically vulnerable men who have sex with men in Jamaica. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(2):e0117686.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 4.Ministry of Health J. HIV epidemiological profile 2015, facts and figures. MOH, Jamaica. 2015. http://moh.gov.jm/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/2015-Epi-Update-Revised-Final.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2017.
- 5.Barrow G, Clare-Pascoe N, Bahadur A, Atkinson U, Browne C, Clarke TR, et al. A review of the HIV-infected homeless sub-population at the Centre for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Services, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of the West Indies. West Indian Med J. 2013;62(4):337–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.UCSF. Sample protocol for an integrated bio-behavioral survey (IBBS) for men who have sex with men (MSM) using time location sampling (TLS). UCSF Global Health Sciences. https://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/sites/globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/files/ibbs-tls-protocol.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2017.
- 10.Supervision TBo. A status report on homelessness in Jamaica: an all Parish survey. The Board of Supervision (for the Relief of the Poor in Jamaica) Homelessness Survey, Ministry of Local Government and Community Development; 2012. p. 40.Google Scholar