Advertisement

Analysis of the consumer’s perception of urban food products from a soilless system in rooftop greenhouses: a case study from the Mediterranean area of Barcelona (Spain)

  • Mireia Ercilla-MontserratEmail author
  • David Sanjuan-Delmás
  • Esther Sanyé-Mengual
  • Laura Calvet-Mir
  • Karla Banderas
  • Joan Rieradevall
  • Xavier Gabarrell
Article

Abstract

Soilless crops are commonly used in rooftop agriculture (RA) because they easily adapt to building constraints. However, acceptance of the produce derived from this system may be controversial. This paper evaluates consumers’ acceptance of food from RA in Mediterranean cities, focusing on the quality of the product, production system, and consumers’ motivations. We surveyed 238 respondents on the UAB university campus as potential consumers. The survey was distributed via an Internet-link that was provided along with a sample of tomatoes from RA. The results showed that most people approved the quality of RA products and perceived them to be local and fresh (94%). The respondents exhibited acceptance of soilless-produced tomatoes and considered them to be environmentally better than conventionally produced ones (69%). Cluster analysis revealed that consumers with high income levels and a university education had a better perception of the quality and proposed a higher price for RA products, but no difference was found regarding their environmental perception of this products. Moreover, people who possessed more information about the product also had a higher perception of the quality and production system (it was perceived to be environmentally friendly) and would pay more for them. The main concerns of consumers were related to food safety and the social impact of RA. Additional research is needed to improve the sustainability of RA, and the applied measures should be communicated to potential consumers to enhance their acceptance and success.

Keywords

Urban agriculture Rooftop agriculture Local food production Local consumption Food self-supply 

Abbreviations

ICTA-ICP

Institute of Environmental Science and Technology and the Catalan Institute of Paleontology

i-RTG

Integrated rooftop greenhouse

RA

Rooftop agriculture

RTG

Rooftop greenhouse

SCS

Soilless culture system

UA

Urban agriculture

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, through the “María de Maeztu” program for Units of Excellence (MDM-2015-0552). In addition, the authors thank the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) for the financial support of the research project “Agrourban sustainability through rooftop greenhouses: Eco-innovation on residual flows of energy, water and CO2 for food production” (CTM2013-47067-C2-1-R) and the research project “Integrated rooftop greenhouses: energy, waste and CO2 symbiosis with the building—towards foods security in a circular economy” (CTM2016-75772-C3-1-R; CTM2016-75772-C3-3-R). The authors are grateful to the Secretaria d’Universitats i Recerca del Departament d’Economia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya for the award of a research scholarship (FI-DGR 2014) to Mireia Ercilla-Montserrat.

References

  1. (CE) no 889/2008, 2008. Reglamento (CE) no 889/2008 de la Comisión de 5 de septiembre de 2008.Google Scholar
  2. Amsterdam, Q. O. 2018. The QO Amsterdam register. https://www.qo-amsterdam.com/about/greenhouse/. Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
  3. Asensio, E., I. Sanvicente, C. Mallor, and S. Menal-Puey. 2019. Spanish traditional tomato. Effects of genotype, location and agronomic conditions on the nutritional quality and evaluation of consumer preferences. Food Chemistry 270: 452–458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2018.07.131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Association for Vertical Farming. 2016. Urban Agriculture Integration Typology—Association for Vertical Farming. https://vertical-farming.net/vertical-farming/integration-typology/. Accessed 21 Jan 2019.
  5. Beauchesne, A., and C. Bryant, C. 1999. Agriculture and Innovation in the Urban Fringe: The Case of Organic Farming in Quebec, Canada. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 90: 320–328.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9663.00073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernard, H. R. 1994. Research methods in anthropology: qualitative and quantitative approaches. Oxford: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bernue, A., A. Olaizola, and K. Corcoran. 2003. Extrinsic attributes of red meat as indicators of quality in Europe: an application for market segmentation. Food Quality and Preference 14 (4): 265–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Block, D. R., N. Chávez, E. Allen, and D. Ramirez. 2011. Food sovereignty, urban food access, and food activism: contemplating the connections through examples from Chicago. Agriculture and Human Values 29: 203–215.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-011-9336-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boizot-Szantai, C., S. Lecocq, S. Marette, and S. Lecocq. 2005. Common Labels and Market Mechanisms. Work. Pap. 05-WP 405. Cent. Agric. Rural Dev. Iowa State Univ.Google Scholar
  10. Calvet-Mir, L., and H. March. 2017. Crisis and post-crisis urban gardening initiatives from a Southern European perspective: The case of Barcelona. European Urban and Regional Studies 26 (1): 97–112.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776417736098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Calvet-Mir, L., H. March, H. Nordh, J. Pourias, and B. Čakovská. 2016. Motivations behind urban gardening: “Here I feel alive.”. In Urban Allotment Gardens in Europe, ed. S. Bell, R. Fox-Kämper, N. Keshavarz, M. Benson, S. Caputo, S. Noori, and A. Voigt. London: Routledge.” 320–341.Google Scholar
  12. Caplow, T. 2009. Building Integrated Agriculture: Philosophy and Practice. In: Urban Futures 2030: Urban Development and Urban Lifestyles of the Future, ed. Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, 48–51. Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  13. Carpio, C. E., and O. Isengildina-Massa. 2009. Consumer willingness to pay for locally grown products: the case of South Carolina. Agribusiness 25: 412–426.  https://doi.org/10.1002/agr.20210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cea D’Ancona, M. A. 1996. Metodología cuantitativa: estrategias y técnicas de investigación social. Síntesis. Retrieved from https://www.casadellibro.com/libro-metodologia-cuantitativa-estrategias-y-tecnicasde-investigacion-social/9788477384205/538245.
  15. Cerón-Palma, I., E. Sanyé-Mengual, J. Oliver-Solà, J. I. Montero, and J. Rieradevall. 2012. Barriers and opportunities regarding the implementation of Rooftop Eco.Greenhouses (RTEG) in Mediterranean cities of Europe. Journal of Urban Technology 19: 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2012.717685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, T.B.,Y.M., M. Zheng, Z. C. Lei, H. Y. Huang, H. Wu, K. K. Chen, K. Fan, X. Yu, Wu, and Q. Z. Tian. 2005. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 60: 542–551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Departament d’Agricultura, Ramaderia, P. i A. 2016. Catalunya consum alimentari a les llars Secretaria General-Gabinet Tècnic. http://agricultura.gencat.cat/web/.content/de_departament/de02_estadistiques_observatoris/09_alimentacio_i_qualitat/dades_consum_catalunya/fitxers_estatics/2017_Consum_Cat.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2019.
  18. Despommier, D. 2010. The vertical farm: Feeding the world in the 21stCentury. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.Google Scholar
  19. Despommier, D. 2011. The vertical farm: controlled environment agriculture carried out in tall buildings would create greater food safety and security for large urban populations. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit 6: 233–236.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-010-0654-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Díaz-Garcés, F. A., I. Vargas-Matos, A. Bernabé-Ortiz, F. Diez-Canseco, A. J. Trujillo, and J. J. Miranda. 2016. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru. Preventive Medicine Reports 4: 469–473.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PMEDR.2016.08.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ecco-jäger Früchte und Gemüse AG. 2017. The Ecco-jäger Früchte und Gemüse AG register http://www.ecco-jaeger.ch/. Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
  22. Ercilla-Montserrat, M., P. Muñoz, J. I. Montero, X. Gabarrell, and J. Rieradevall. 2018. A study on air quality and heavy metals content of urban food produced in a Mediterranean city (Barcelona). Journal of Cleaner Production 159: 385–395.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FAO. 2013. Good Agricultural Practices for Greenhouse Vegetable Crops—Principles for Mediterranean Climate Areas FAO Good Agricultural Practices for greenhouse vegetable crops Principles for Mediterranean climate areas. Food Agric. Organ. United Nations Plant Prod. Prot. Div. Wilfried Baudoin, Remi Nono-Womdim, NeBambi Lutaladio, Alison Hodder.Google Scholar
  24. Feldmann, C., and U. Hamm. 2015. Consumers’ perceptions and preferences for local food: A review. Food Quality and Preference 40: 152–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODQUAL.2014.09.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fischetti, M. 2008. Growing Vertical: Skyscraper Farming. Cultivating crops in downtown skyscrapers might save bushels of energy and provide city dwellers with distinctively fresh food. Scientific American 18: 74–79.  https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamericanearth0908-74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frewer, L. J., K. Bergmann, M. Brennan, R. Lion, R. Meertens, G. Rowe, M. Siegrist, and C. Vereijken. 2011. Consumer response to novel agri-food technologies: Implications for predicting consumer acceptance of emerging food technologies. Trends in Food Science & Technology 22: 442–456.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TIFS.2011.05.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gaskell, G., S. Stares, A. Allansdottir, N. Allum, C. Corchero, C. Fischler, and W. Wagner. 2006. Europeans and Biotechnology in 2005: Patterns and Trends (No. Final report on Eurobarometer 64.3). Special Eurobarometer. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/ebs/ebs_244b_en.pdf.
  28. Gaskell, G., S. Stares, A. Allansdottir, N. Allum, C. Corchero, C. Fischler, J. Hampel, J. Jackson, N. Kronberger, N. Mejlgaard, G. Revuelta, C. Schreiner, H. Torgersen and W. Wagner. 2006. Europeans and Biotechnology in 2005: Patterns and Trends (No. Final report on Eurobarometer 64.3), Special Eurobarometer.Google Scholar
  29. Germer, J., J. Sauerborn, F. Asch, J. Boer, J. Schreiber, G. Weber, and J. Müller. 2011. Skyfarming an ecological innovation to enhance global food security. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit 6: 237–251.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00003-011-0691-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gotham Greens. 2018. The Gotham Greens register http://gothamgreens.com/. Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
  31. Honkanen, P., and L. Frewer. 2009. Russian consumers’ motives for food choice. Appetite 52: 363–371.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.APPET.2008.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hussein, M., A. Silva, and I. Fraser. 2015. Linking intrinsic quality attributes of agricultural produce to revealed consumer preferences. Food Quality and Preference 41: 180–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODQUAL.2014.11.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. IBM Corp 2013. IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk: IBM CorpGoogle Scholar
  34. Khan, S., Q. Cao, Y. M. Zheng, Y. Z. Huang, and Y. G. Zhu. 2008. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution, 152(3): 686–692.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Khan, Z. I., K. Ahmad, M. Ashraf, N. Shoaib, R. Parveen, Z. Bibi, I. Mustafa, I. R. Noorka, H. M. Tahir, N. A. Akram, M. F. Ullah, R. Yaqoob, V. Tufarelli, M. Fracchiolla, and E. Cazzato. 2016. Assessment of toxicological health risk of trace metals in vegetables mostly consumed in Punjab, Pakistan. Environmental Earth Sciences 75: 433.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5392-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kutter, T., S. Tiemann, R. Siebert, and S. Fountas. 2011. The role of communication and co-operation in the adoption of precision farming. Precision Agriculture 12: 2–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-009-9150-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. LLorach Massana, P. 2017. Mitigating the environmental impacts of Urban Agriculture: innovative materials, GHG emissions analysis and new by-products. PhD dissertation. Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  38. Lufa Farms. 2013. The Lufa Farms register. https://montreal.lufa.com/en/ Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
  39. Lwasa, S., F. Mugagga, B. Wahab, J. Connors, and C. Griffith. 2014. Urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry: Transcending poverty alleviation to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Urban Climate 7: 92–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.UCLIM.2013.10.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Manta, D. S., M. Angelone, A. Bellanca, R. Neri, and M. Sprovieri. 2002. Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy. Science of the Total Environment 300: 229–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00273-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mascarello, G., A. Pinto, N. Parise, S. Crovato, and L. Ravarotto. 2015. The perception of food quality. Profiling Italian consumers. Appetite 89: 175–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.APPET.2015.02.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miličić, V., R. Thorarinsdottir, M. Santos, M. Hančič, V. Miličić, R. Thorarinsdottir, M.Dos Santos, and M. T. Hančič. 2017. Commercial Aquaponics Approaching the European Market: To Consumers’ Perceptions of Aquaponics Products in Europe. Water 9: 80.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mok, H.-F., V. G. Williamson, J. R. Grove, K. Burry, S. F. Barker, and A. J. Hamilton. 2013. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 24: 21–43.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0156-7.Google Scholar
  44. Montero, J. I., E. Baeza, E. P. Heuvelink, J. Rieradevall, P. Muñoz, M. Ercilla, and C. Stanghellini. 2017. Productivity of a building-integrated roof top greenhouse in a Mediterranean climate. Agricultural Systems 158: 14–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AGSY.2017.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moser, R., R. Rafaelli and D. Thilmany. 2011. Consumer preferences for fruit and vegetables with credence-based attributes: A review. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 14(2): 121–142.Google Scholar
  46. Nadal, A., P. Llorach-Massana, E. Cuerva, E. López-Capel, J. I. Montero, A. Josa, J. Rieradevall, and M. Royapoor. 2017. Building-integrated rooftop greenhouses: An energy and environmental assessment in the mediterranean context. Applied Energy 187: 338–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.11.051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Opitz, I., R. Berges, A. Piorr, and T. Krikser. 2016. Contributing to food security in urban areas: differences between urban agriculture and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North. Agriculture and Human Values 33: 341–358.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-015-9610-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Padel, S. 2001. Conversion to Organic Farming: A Typical Example of the Diffusion of an Innovation? Sociol. Ruralis 41: 40–61.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9523.00169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pennisi, G., F. Orsini, D. Gasperi, S. Mancarella, R. Sanoubar, L. Vittori Antisari, G. Vianello, and G. Gianquinto. 2016. Soilless system on peat reduce trace metals in urban-grown food: unexpected evidence for a soil origin of plant contamination. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 36: 56.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-016-0391-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Peterson, R. A., and D. R. Merunka. 2014. Convenience samples of college students and research reproducibility. Journal of Business Research, 67(5): 1035–1041.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2013.08.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Piombino, P., F. Sinesio, E. Moneta, M. Cammareri, A. Genovese, M. T. Lisanti, M. R. Mogno, M. Peparaio, P. Termolino, L. Moio, and S. Grandillo. 2013. Investigating physicochemical, volatile and sensory parameters playing a positive or a negative role on tomato liking. Food Research International 50: 409–419.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODRES.2012.10.033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pons, O., A. Nadal, E. Sanyé-Mengual, P. Llorach-Massana, E. Cuerva, D. Sanjuan-Delmàs, P. Muñoz, J. Oliver-Solà, C. Planas, and M. R. Rovira. 2015. Roofs of the Future: Rooftop Greenhouses to Improve Buildings Metabolism. Procedia Engineering 123: 441–448.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.10.084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Putra, P. A., and H. Yuliando. 2015. Soilless Culture System to Support Water Use Efficiency and Product Quality: A Review. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 3: 283–288.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.01.054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Randelli, F., and B. Rocchi. 2017. Analysing the role of consumers within technological innovation systems: The case of alternative food networks. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 25: 94–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EIST.2017.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rantala, T., J. Ukko, M. Saunila, and J. Havukainen. 2018. The effect of sustainability in the adoption of technological, service, and business model innovations. Journal of Cleaner Production 172: 46–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roininen, K., A. Arvola, and L. Lähteenmäki. 2006. Exploring consumers’ perceptions of local food with two different qualitative techniques: Laddering and word association. Food Quality and Preference 17: 20–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FOODQUAL.2005.04.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sanjuan Delmás, D. 2017. Environmental assessment of water supply: cities and vertical farming buildings. PhD dissertation. Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  58. Sanjuan-Delmás, D., P. Llorach-Massana, A. Nadal, M. Ercilla-Montserrat, P. Muñoz, J. I. Montero, A. Josa, X. Gabarrell, and J. Rieradevall. 2018. Environmental assessment of an integrated rooftop greenhouse for food production in cities. Journal of Cleaner Production 177: 326–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017.12.147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sanyé-Mengual, E. 2015. Sustainability assessment of urban rooftop farming using an interdisciplinary approach. PhD dissertation. Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  60. Sanyé-Mengual, E., I. Cerón-Palma, J. Oliver-Solà, J. I. Montero, and J. Rieradevall. 2013. Environmental analysis of the logistics of agricultural products from roof top greenhouses in Mediterranean urban areas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93: 100–109.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sanyé-Mengual, E., P. Llorach-Massana, D. Sanjuan-Delmás, J. Oliver-Solà, A. Josa, J. I. Montero, and J. Rieradevall. 2014. The ICTA-ICP Rooftop Greenhouse Lab (RTG-Lab): closing metabolic flows (energy, water, CO2) through integrated Rooftop Greenhouses, in: Roggema, R., Keefer, G. (Eds.), “Finding Spaces for Productive Spaces” 6th AESOP Sustainable Food Planning Conference. VHL University of Applied Sciences, Velp, pp. 692–701.Google Scholar
  62. Sanyé-Mengual, E., J. Oliver-Solà, J. I. Montero, and J. Rieradevall. 2015. An environmental and economic life cycle assessment of rooftop greenhouse (RTG) implementation in Barcelona, Spain. Assessing new forms of urban agriculture from the greenhouse structure to the final product level. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 20 (3): 350–366.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-014-0836-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sanyé-Mengual, E., I. Anguelovski, J. Oliver-Solà, J. I. Montero, and J. Rieradevall. 2016. Resolving differing stakeholder perceptions of urban rooftop farming in Mediterranean cities: promoting food production as a driver for innovative forms of urban agriculture. Agriculture and Human Values 33: 101–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-015-9594-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sanyé-Mengual, E., K. Specht, T. Krikser, C. Vanni, G. Pennisi, F. Orsini, and G. P. Gianquinto. 2018. Social acceptance and perceived ecosystem services of urban agriculture in Southern Europe: The case of Bologna, Italy. PLoS ONE 13 (9): e0200993.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Savvas, D., G. Gianquinto, Y. Tuzel, and N. Gruda. 2013. Soilless Culture. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper No. 217: Good Agricultural Practices for Greenhouse Vegetable Crops.Google Scholar
  66. Sellers, R. 2016. Would you Pay a Price Premium for a Sustainable Wine? The Voice of the Spanish Consumer. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 8: 10–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sharma, A., J. Moon, and C. Strohbehn. 2014. Restaurant’s decision to purchase local foods: Influence of value chain activities. International Journal of Hospitality Management 39: 130–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJHM.2014.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Specht, K., and E. Sanyé-Mengual. 2017. Risks in urban rooftop agriculture: Assessing stakeholders’ perceptions to ensure efficient policymaking. Environmental Science & Policy 69: 13–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Specht, K., R. Siebert, I. Hartmann, U. B. Freisinger, M. Sawicka, A. Werner, S. Thomaier, D. Henckel, H. Walk, and A. Dierich. 2014. Urban agriculture of the future: an overview of sustainability aspects of food production in and on buildings. Agriciculture and Human Values 31: 33–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-013-9448-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Specht, K., R. Siebert, S. Thomaier, U. Freisinger, M. Sawicka, A. Dierich, D. Henckel, and M. Busse. 2015. Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges. Sustainability 7: 4511–4523.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Specht, K., R. Siebert, and S. Thomaier. 2016a. Perception and acceptance of agricultural production in and on urban buildings (ZFarming): a qualitative study from Berlin, Germany. Agriculture and Human Values 33: 753–769.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-015-9658-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Specht, K., T. Weith, K. Swoboda, and R. Siebert. 2016b. Socially acceptable urban agriculture businesses. Agronomy for Sustainable Development.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-016-0355-0.Google Scholar
  73. Steenis, N. D., E. van Herpen, I. A. van der Lans, T. N. Ligthart, and H. C. M. van Trijp. 2017. Consumer response to packaging design: The role of packaging materials and graphics in sustainability perceptions and product evaluations. Journal of Cleaner Production 162: 286–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017.06.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Thomaier, S., K. Specht, D. Henckel, A. Dierich, R. Siebert, U. B. Freisinger, and M. Sawicka. 2015. Farming in and on urban buildings: Present practice and specific novelties of Zero-Acreage Farming (ZFarming). Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 30: 43–54.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170514000143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tkaczynski, A., S. Rundle-Thiele, and N. Beaumont. 2009. Destination segmentation: A recommended two-step approach. PhD dissertation. School of Management and Marketing. Faculty of Business, School of Management and Marketing. University of Southern Queensland.Google Scholar
  76. Torjusen, H., G. Lieblein, M. Wandel, and C. A. Francis. 2001. Food system orientation and quality perception among consumers and producers of organic food in Hedmark County, Norway. Food Quality and Preference 12: 207–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(00)00047-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Urban Farm Market. 2017. The New Farm register. http://thenewfarm.nl/en/ Accessed 11 Sept 2018.
  78. Van Rijswijk, and L. J. Frewer. 2006. British Food Journal Consumer perceptions of food quality and safety and their relation to traceability. British Food Journal 110: 1034–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vittori Antisari, L., F. Ventura, A. Simoni, S. Piana, P. R. Pisa, and G. Vianelloz. 2013. Assessment of Pollutants in Wet and Dry Depositions in a Suburban Area around a Waste-to-Energy Plant (WEP) in Northern Italy. Journal of Environmental Protection (Irvine,. Calif) 04: 16–25.  https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.45A003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vogl, C. R., P. Axmann, and B. Vogl-Lukasser. 2004. Urban organic farming in Austria with the concept of Selbsternte (’self-harvest’): An agronomic and socio-economic analysis. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 19: 67–79.  https://doi.org/10.1079/RAFS200362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Voutsa, D., A. Grimanis, and C. Samara. 1996. Trace elements in vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil and air particulate matter. Environmental Pollution 94: 325–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wadgave, U., and M. R. Khairnar. 2016. Parametric tests for Likert scale: For and against. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 24: 67–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2016.08.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zasada, I. 2011. Multifunctional peri-urban agriculture—A review of societal demands and the provision of goods and services by farming. Land Use Policy 28: 639–648.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sostenipra Research Group 3.0 2017SGR 1683, Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (MDM-2015-0552)Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Envoc Research Group, Green Chemistry and TechnologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Research Centre in Urban Environment for Agriculture and Biodiversity (ResCUE-AB), Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL)Alma Mater Studiorum University of BolognaBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3)Universitat Oberta de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia AmbientalsUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, School of EngineeringUniversitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations