Advertisement

Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) tree as a feed resource for animal growth

  • J. E. Ruiz-Nieto
  • J. Hernández-Ruiz
  • J. Hernández-Marín
  • J. Mendoza-Carrillo
  • M. Abraham-Juárez
  • P. M. Isiordia-Lachica
  • A. I. Mireles-ArriagaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Mesquite tree (Prosopis spp.), is an important species in arid zones, due to its nitrogen-fixing and adaptability to drought seasons, it also provides food for many species of wild animals which feed on its nectar, pollen, leaves and pods. This plant is an excellent source of protein, fiber, sugars and phytochemical compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, phenolics, steroids, terpenes and flavonoids. Mesquite has been used in farm animal nutrition as supplement with recommended proportions between 20 and 40%. The nutritional contributions also depend on the usage of pods or foliage, however, most of the studies highly recommend an enzymatic pretreatment to increase the biomass digestibility. Its nutritional characteristics and ability to grow under scarce water conditions turn it as a potential source to replace expensive forages for farm animal feeding especially in semiarid regions; however, the results in animal feeding are diverse. The usage of tree species in arid zones for animal feeding has been long proposed, but, for Prosopis spp. there are few updated studies despite of its potential usage. This work presents a general overview of the mesquite tree usage in animal feed.

Keywords

Tree forages Animal feed Arid zone Algarobo 

Notes

References

  1. Abdullah A, Abdel Hafes BY (2004) Inclusion of Prosopis juliflora pods in finishing Awassi lamb diets. In: Proceedings of 11th AAAP animal science congress, vol 2, pp 373–375Google Scholar
  2. Adamu L, Igwebuike J, Kwari I, Aliyu J (2013) Utilization of Prosopis africana pulp for rabbit feeding: 1. Effects on growth and economic performance. Glob J Pure Appl Sci.  https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v19i1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed N (2017) Mesquite (Devi): Prosopis juliflora a potential source of livelihood in Thar. China Agricultural University, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali AS, Tudsri S, Rungmekarat S, Kaewtrakulpong K (2012) Effect of feeding Prosopis juliflora pods and leaves on performance and carcass characteristics of Afar sheep. Kasetsart J Nat Sci 46(6):871–881Google Scholar
  5. Allegretti L, Sartor C, Paez Lama S, Egea V, Fucili M, Passera C (2012) Effect of the physiological state of Criollo goats on the botanical composition of their diet in NE Mendoza, Argentina. Small Rumin Res 103(2–3):152–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almaraz-Abarca N, Campos MDG, Ávila-Reyes JA et al (2007) Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of monofloral honeybee-collected pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, Leguminosae). J Food Compos Anal 20:119–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvarez-Fuentes G, García-López JC, Pinos-Rodríguez JM et al (2012) Effects of feeding the seeds of Prosopis laevigata, Acacia schaffneri and Ceratonia siliqua on the performance of broiler chicks. S Afr J Anim Sci 42(4):354–359.  https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v42i4.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrade-Montemayor HF, Pacheco-López M, Aguilar-Borjas H et al (2009) Effect of dry roasting on composition, digestibility and degradability of fiber fractions of mesquite pods (Prosopis laevigata) as feed supplement in goats. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 11:237–243Google Scholar
  9. Andrade-Montemayor HM, Cordova-Torres AV, García-Gasca T, Kawas JR (2011) Alternative foods for small ruminants in semiarid zones, the case of Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata spp.) and Nopal (Opuntia spp.). Small Rumin Res 98(1–3):83–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atawodi S, Ogunbusola F (2010) Evaluation of anti-trypanosomal properties of four extracts of leaves, stem and root barks of Prosopis africana in laboratory animals. Biokemistri.  https://doi.org/10.4314/biokem.v21i2.56478 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ayanwuyi LO, Yaro AH, Abodunde OM (2010) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana. Pharm Biol 48(3):296–299.  https://doi.org/10.3109/13880200903121006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bera I, Tyagi P, Akbar N (2019) Dietary supplementation of saponins to improve the quality and oxidative stability of broiler chicken meat. J Food Sci Technol 56:2063–2072.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03683-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhatt S, Chovatiya SG, Shah AR (2011) Evaluation of raw and hydrothermically processed Prosopis juliflora seed meal as supplementary feed for the growth of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Aquac Nutr.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00745.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhatta R, Shinde AK, Verma DL et al (2004) Effect of supplementation containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 on intake, rumen fermentation pattern and growth in kids fed foliage of Prosopis cineraria. Small Rumin Res 52:45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00222-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhatta R, Vaithiyanathan S, Shinde AK, Jakhmola RC (2005) Effect of feeding complete feed block containing Prosopis cineraria leaves and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 on nutrient intake, its utilization, rumen fermentation pattern and rumen enzyme profile in kids. J Sci Food Agric.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhatta R, Vaithiyanathan NP, Singh Verma DL (2007) Effect of feeding complete diets containing graded levels of Prosopis cineraria leaves on feed intake, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in lambs and kids. Small Rumin Res 67:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bravo L, Grados N, Saura-Calixto F (1998) Characterization of syrups and dietary fiber obtained from mesquite pods (Prosopis pallida L.). J Agric Food Chem 6:1727–1733.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970867p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burkart A (1940) Materiales para una monografía del género Prosopis (Leguminosae). Darwiniana 4:57–128Google Scholar
  19. Burkart A (1976) A monograph of the genus Prosopis (Leguminosae subfam. Mimosoideae). J Arnold Arbor 57:450–525Google Scholar
  20. Cattaneo F, Costamagna MS, Zampini IC et al (2016) Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: a natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals. Food Chem 208:89–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.115 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chaturvedi OH, Sahoo A (2013) Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass. Springerplus 2:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choge SK, Pasiecznik NM, Harvey M et al (2007) Prosopis pods as human food, with special reference to Kenya. Water SA 33(3 SPECIAL EDITION):419–424.  https://doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v33i3.49162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Da Silva VDA, Da Silva AMM, Silva JHC et al (2018) Neurotoxicity of Prosopis juliflora from natural poisoning to mechanism of action of its piperidine alkaloids. Neurotox Res 34:878–888.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-017-9862-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dahms H, Sethuraman P (2014) Pharmacological potentials of phenolic compounds from Prosopis spp.—a review. J Coast Life Med.  https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.2.2014j27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Brito Damasceno GA, Ferrari M, Giordani RB (2017) Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C., an invasive specie at the Brazilian Caatinga: phytochemical, pharmacological, toxicological and technological overview. Phytochem Rev 16:309–331.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-016-9476-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Oliveira Moraes GS, De Souza EJ, Véras AS et al (2016) Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers. Trop Anim Health Prod 48:1415–1420.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1108-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Díaz-Batalla L, Hernández-Uribe JP, Román-Gutiérrez AD et al (2018) Chemical and nutritional characterization of raw and thermal-treated flours of Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) pods and their residual brans. CyTA—J Food 16:444–451.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2017.1418433 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dos Santos E, Pereira M, Flávia C, Silva P (2013) Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid-enriched extract from Prosopis juliflora pods and its influence on in vitro ruminal digestion. Int J Mol Sci.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048496 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutta N, Sharma K, Hassan QZ (1999) Effect of supplementation of rice straw with Leucaena leucocephala and Prosopis cineraria leaves on nutrient utilization by goats. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 12:742–746.  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.742 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elmezughi J, Shittu H, Clements C et al (2013) Bioactive natural compounds from Prosopis africana and Abies nobili. J Appl Pharm Sci 3:40–43.  https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2013.30308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Felker P, Grados N, Cruz G, Prokopiuk D (2003) Economic assessment of production of flour from Prosopis alba and P. pallida pods for human food applications. J Arid Environ 53:517–528.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.2002.1064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Freyre M, Astrada E, Blasco C et al (2003) Valores nutricionales de frutos de vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia): consumo humano y animal. Ciencia y Tecnología Alimentaria 4:41–46.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11358120309487617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Girma M, Urge M, Animut G (2011) Ground Prosopis juliflora pods as feed ingredient in poultry diet: effects on growth and carcass characteristics of broilers. Int J Poult Sci 10:970–976.  https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.970.976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gutiérrez M, Biagioni RN, Alarcón-Herrera MT et al (2018) An overview of nitrate sources and operating processes in arid and semiarid aquifer systems. Sci Total Environ 624:1513–1522.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.252 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Henciya S, Seturaman P, James AR et al (2017) Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa). J Food Drug Anal 25:187–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.11.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ibrahim A, Gaili ES (1985) Performance and carcass traits of goat fed on diets containing different proportions of mesquite (Prosopis chilensis). Trop Agric 62(2):97–99Google Scholar
  37. Igwebuike JU, Adamu L, Kwari ID, Aliyu J (2013) Utilization of Prosopis africana pulp for rabbit feeding: 2. Effects on nutrient digestibility, blood components and carcass characteristics. Global J Pure Appl Sci 19:17–22.  https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v19i1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnston MC (1962) The North American mesquites Prosopis Sect. Algarobia (Leguminosae). Brittonia 14:72–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khobondo JO (2019) Effect of incorporation of ground Prosopis juliflora pods in layer diet on weight gain egg production, and natural antibody titer in KALRO genetically improved indigenous chicken. Trop Anim Health Prod.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01932-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kumar R (2002) Prosopis cineraria leaf tannins: their inhibitory effect upon ruminal cellulase and the recovery of inhibition by polyethylene glycol-4000. In: Plant polyphenols, synthesis, properties, significance. p 522. ISBN: 978-1-4613-6540-2Google Scholar
  41. Kumar R, Vaithiyanathan S (1990) Occurrence, nutritional significance and effect on animal productivity of tannins in tree leaves. Anim Feed Sci Technol 30:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lei Z, Zhang K, Li C et al (2018) Dietary supplementation with essential-oils-cobalt for improving growth performance, meat quality and skin cell capacity of goats. Sci Rep.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29897-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu Y, Singh D, Nair MG (2012) Pods of Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) consumed as a vegetable showed functional food properties. J Funct Foods 4:116–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2011.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mahgoub O, Kadim IT, Forsberg NE et al (2005) Evaluation of Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) pods as a feed for goats. Anim Feed Sci Technol 121:319–327.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mahmood K, Ismail Chughtai M, Awan AR, Waheed RA (2016) Biomass production of some salt tolerant tree species grown in different ecological zones of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 48:89–96Google Scholar
  46. Manikandar RVM, Rajesh V, Kumar RS, Perumal P, Raj CD (2009) Analgesic and anti-pyretic activity of stem bark of Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce. J Pharm Res 2(4):60–662Google Scholar
  47. McSweeney CS, Palmer B, McNeill DM, Krause DO (2001) Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Technol 91:83–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00232-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mota-Silva T, Chung S, De Araújo Tavares et al (2015) Substituição do milho pelo farelo de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora) em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo cultivados em baixa temperatura. Rev Bras Cienc Agrar 10:460–465.  https://doi.org/10.5039/agraria.v10i3a4168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nakano H, Nakajima E, Hiradate S, Fujii Y, Yamada K, Shigemori H, Hasegawa K (2004) Growth inhibitory alkaloids from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves. Phytochemistry 65:587–591.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Napar A, Hadi B, Muhammad AZ et al (2012) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mimosaceae plants; Acacia modesta Wall (Phulai), Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz). J Med Plants Res.  https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.1349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Obeidat BS, Shdaifat MM (2013) Partial substitution of barley grain with Prosopis juliflora pods in lactating Awassi ewes’ diets: effect on intake, digestibility, and nursing performance. Small Rumin Res 111:50–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Obeidat BS, Abdullah AY, Al-Lataifeh FA (2008) The effect of partial replacement of barley grains by Prosopis juliflora pods on growth performance, nutrient intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 146:42–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Omidi A, Ansarinik H, Ghazaghi M (2012) Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Trop Anim Health Prod 45:431–434.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0234-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pal K, Patra AK, Sahoo A, Mandal GP (2014) Effect of nitrate and fumarate in Prosopis cineraria and Ailanthus excelsa leaves-based diets on methane production and rumen fermentation. Small Rumin Res 121(2–3):168–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pasiecznik NM (2001) The Prosopis julifloraProsopis pallida complex: a monograph. For Ecol Manag.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00559-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pereira TC, De J, Pereira MLA, de Oliveira CAS et al (2013) Mesquite pod meal in diets for lactating goats. Rev Bras Zootec 42:102–108.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982013000200004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pereira T, Pereira MLA, Almeida PJP et al (2014) Substitution of corn for mesquite pod meal in diets for lambs. Ital J Anim Sci 13(3):3278.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2014.3278 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Piluzza G, Sulas L, Bullitta S (2014) Tannins in forage plants and their role in animal husbandry and environmental sustainability: a review. Grass Forage Sci 69:32–48.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Prabha DS, Dahms HU, Malliga P (2014) Pharmacological potentials of phenolic compounds from Prosopis spp.—a. J Coast Life Med 2:918–924.  https://doi.org/10.12980/JCLM.2.2014J27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Preeti K, Avatar S, Mala A (2015) Pharmacology and therapeutic application of Prosopis juliflora: a review. JPS 3:234–240.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jps.20150304.20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Quispe C, Petroll K, Theoduloz C, Schmeda-Hirschmann G (2014) Antioxidant effect and characterization of South American Prosopis pods syrup. Food Res Int 56:174–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.12.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Raghavendra MP, Satish S, Raveesha KA (2009) Alkaloids isolated from leaves of Prosopis juliflora against Xanthomonas pathovars. Archiv für Pflanzenschutz 42:1033–1041.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400701621644 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rahman AA, Samoylenko V, Jacob MR et al (2011) Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa. Planta Med 77:1639–1643.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1270906 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Ravikala K, Patel AM, Murthy KS, Adhwani KN (1995) Growth efficiency in feedlot lambs on Prosopis juliflora based diets. Small Rumin Res 16:227–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(95)00639-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rincón F, Muñoz J, Ramírez P et al (2013) Physicochemical and rheological characterization of Prosopis juliflora seed gum aqueous dispersions. Food Hydrocoll 35:348–357.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robertson S, Narayanan N, Raj Kapoor B (2011) Antitumour activity of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-induced mice. Nat Prod Res 25:857–862.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.536159 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rzedowski J (1988) Análisis de la distribución geográfica del complejo Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae) en Norteamérica. Acta Botánica Mexicana 3:7–19Google Scholar
  68. Rzedowski J, Rzedowski GC, Pátzcuaro M (2007) Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes. Familia leguminosae. Fasiculo 150. Instituto Nacional de Ecología. 230 ppGoogle Scholar
  69. Sabiiti EN, Cobbina J (1992) Parkia biglobosa: a potential multipurpose fodder tree legume in west africa. Int Tree Crops J 7:113–139.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01435698.1992.9752911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Salazar PC, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Grados N (2019) Tree size and leaf traits determine the fertility island effect in Prosopis pallida dryland forest in Northern Peru. Plant Soil 437:117–135.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-03965-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Santos E, Pereira M, Almeida P et al (2015) Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance. Acta Scientiarum. Anim Sci 37(1):55–59.  https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v37i1.24466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sathiya M, Muthuchelian K (2011) Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC. Leaves against Molt-4 cells in vitro. Afr J Biotechnol 10:8881–8888.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.875 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sawal R, Ratan R, Yadav S (2004) Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pods as a feed resource for livestock—a review. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 17:719–725.  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.719 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sirmah P, Dumarçay S, Masson E, Gérardin P (2009) Unusual amount of (−)-mesquitol from the heartwood of Prosopis juliflora. Nat Prod Res.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410801940968 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sriohi A, Tewari JC, Cantt M et al (2017) Effect of feeding crushed and entire dried Prosopis juliflora pods on feed intake, growth and reproductive performance of arid goats, February 2017/short communication. Indian J Anim Sci 87(2):238–240Google Scholar
  76. Tabosa IM, Riet-Correa F, Barros SS et al (2006) Neurohistologic and ultrastructural lesions in cattle experimentally intoxicated with the plant Prosopis juliflora. Vet Pathol 43:695–701.  https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.43-5-695 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Tapia A, Feresin GE, Bustos D, Astudillo L, Theoduloz C, Schmeda-Hirschmann G (2000) Biologically active alkaloids and a free radical scavenger from Prosopis species. J Ethnopharmacol 71:241–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00171-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Tesema B, Animut G, Urge M (2013) Effect of green Prosopis juliflora pods and Noug seed (Guizotia obissynica) Cake supplementation on digestibility and performance of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep fed Hay as a basal diet. Sci Technol Arts Res J 2:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ullah SS, Kashyap C, Guha AK et al (2018) Effect of replacing concentrate feed with leaves of Oldman saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) on feed intake, weight gain, and carcass parameters of highland sheep fed on wheat straw in northern Ethiopia. Curr Sci 50:605.  https://doi.org/10.22067/ijasr.v1397i1.60772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vaithiyanathan S, Bhatta R, Mishra AS et al (2007) Effect of feeding graded levels of Prosopis cineraria leaves on rumen ciliate protozoa, nitrogen balance and microbial protein supply in lambs and kids. Anim Feed Sci Technol 133:177–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wakie T, Evangelista P, Laituri M (2012) Utilization assessment of Prosopis juliflora in Afar region, Ethiopia. US Forest Service, USDA Office of International Programs, USAID Pastoral Livelihoods Initiative II Project (PLI II)Google Scholar
  82. Wickens GE (1998) Ecophysiology of economic plants in arid and semi-arid lands. In: Arid and semi-arid environments of the world. Springer Verlag, Beijing.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03700-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. William K, Jafri L (2015) Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora): livestock grazin, its toxicity and management. J Bioresour Manag 2:49–58.  https://doi.org/10.35691/JBM.5102.0021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yasin M, Animut G (2014) Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet. Trop Anim Health Prod 46:1079–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0615-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhao J, Li Q, Zhang RX et al (2018) Effect of dietary grape pomace on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant activity in ram lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 236:76–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Agronomía, División de Ciencias de la VidaUniversidad de GuanajuatoIrapuato, GuanajuatoMéxico
  2. 2.Departamento de Veterinaria, División de Ciencias de la VidaUniversidad de GuanajuatoIrapuato, GuanajuatoMéxico
  3. 3.Departamento de Alimentos, División de Ciencias de la VidaUniversidad de GuanajuatoIrapuato, GuanajuatoMéxico

Personalised recommendations